154:HR: Exam 2

  1. In-house recruiting is recommended for
    large companies
  2. For recruiting, smaller companies may rely on
    external recruitment resources
  3. Cooperative alliances involve
    arrangements to share recruitment resources
  4. 9 Administrative Recruitment Issues
    • 1. In-house vs. external recruitment agency
    • 2. Individual vs cooperative recruitment alliances
    • 3. Centralized vs. decentralized recruitment
    • 4. Requisitions
    • 5. Number of Contacts
    • 6. Types of Contacts
    • 7. Development of a recruitment guide
    • 8. Process flow and record keeping
    • 9. Recruiters
  5. Number of contacts- yield ratio:
    Relationship of applicant inputs to outputs at various decision points
  6. Should recruitment expenses be charged to HR or to the business unit using HR services?
    -Most organizations charge the HR department, possibly to encourage each business unit to use the recruitment services of the HR group

    -May result in the business unit users not being concerned about minimizing costs
  7. The administrative issue of recruiters involves
    selecting and training recruiters
  8. 4 Desirable Characteristics of Recruiters
    • 1. Strong interpersonal skills
    • 2. Knowledge about company, jobs, and career-related issues
    • 3. Technology skills
    • 4. Enthusiasm
  9. 3 Sources of recruiters
    • 1. HR professionals
    • 2. Line managers
    • 3. Employees
  10. 3 elements of recruiting budget
    • 1. Administrative Expenses
    • 2. Recruiter Expenses
    • 3. Candidate Expenses
  11. Open recruitment technique:
    advertising positions with a message appealing to a wide variety of job seekers in a variety of media outlets that will reach the largest possible audience
  12. Targeted recruitment technique
    focusing advertising and recruiting efforts and tailoring message content to attract segments of the labor market with specific KSAOs or demographic characteristics
  13. open recruitment advantages
    -ensures that a diverse set of applicants are contacted and considered

    -lower resource and personnel cost per applicant located
  14. Targeted recruitment advantages
    -narrows the pool of potential applicants, allowing the organization to concentrate efforts on the most qualified

    -facilitates a more personal approach to each applicant
  15. open recruiting is best when
    -large numbers of applicants are required

    -pre=entry qualifications are not as important
  16. targeted recruiting is best when
    -the organization needs specific skill sets that are in short supply

    -hiring for high-leverage positions
  17. 13 Recruitment sources
    • 1. Applicant initiated
    • 2. Employee referrals
    • 3. Employee networks
    • 4. Advertisements
    • 5. Employment websites
    • 6. Colleges and placement offices
    • 7. Employment agencies
    • 8. Executive search firms
    • 9. Professional associations and meetings
    • 10. Social service agencies
    • 11. Outplacement services
    • 12. Job fairs
    • 13. Co-ops and interships
  18. 7 features of High-Impact Organizational Websites
    • 1. Easily navigated
    • 2. A "job cart" function
    • 3. Resume builders
    • 4. Detailed information on career opportunities
    • 5. Clear graphics
    • 6. Allow applicants to create profiles
    • 7. Self-assessment inventories
  19. One of the most common recruiting methods is
    employee referrals
  20. Benefits of Employee referrals
    -finds candidates who are better informed about organizational culture and values

    -lower turnover rates
  21. Employee referrals are often boosted by
    providing cash bonuses to employees who refer successful candidates
  22. 4 points of Functionality of Employment Websites
    • 1. Ability to create and approve job requisitions online
    • 2. Manage recruiting tasks
    • 3. Track the progress of open positions and candidates
    • 4. Report on recruiting metrics like time to hire, cost per hire, or equal employment opportunity
  23. General employment websites
    -attract a wider variety of potential applicants (millions of users)
  24. Niche employment websites
    -Target individuals with specific skill sets who are more qualified and motivated
  25. 4 Metrics for Evaluating Recruiting Methods
    • 1. Quantity
    • 2. Quality
    • 3. Cost
    • 4. Impact on HR Outcomes
  26. Metrics: the impact on HR outcomes includes
    • 1. Employee satisfaction
    • 2. Job performance
    • 3. Diversity
    • 4. Retention
  27. Information conveyed in Realistic messages
    both positive and negative aspects of a job and organization are described
  28. Applicant reactions to Realistic messages
    -some self-select out

    -those who remain will have a better understanding of the job and will be less likely to leave
  29. Potential drawbacks of Realistic messages
    the best potential applicants may be more likely to leave
  30. Realistic messages are best for
    loose labor markets or when turnover is costly
  31. Information conveyed in Branded messages
    an appealing description is developed based on marketing principles, emphasizing unique features of the organization
  32. Applicant reactions to Branded messages
    -Positive view of the organization

    -increased intention to apply for jobs

    - better prehire information about benefits of the job
  33. Potential drawback of Branded messages
    overly positive message may result in employee dissatisfaction after hire
  34. Branded messages are best fo
    tight labor markets or higher-value jobs
  35. Information conveyed in Targeted messages
    advertising themes are designed to attract a specific set of employees
  36. Applicant Reactions to Target Messages
    Better fit between application message and specific applicant groups
  37. Potential drawbacks of Targeted Messages
    may dissuade applicants who aren't interested in the work attributes featured in the message from applying
  38. Targeted messages are best for
    when you are seeking specific KSAOs or types of applicants
  39. 5 Examples of Communication Mediums
    • 1. Recruitment brochures
    • 2. Videos and videoconferencing
    • 3. Advertisements (classifieds, online/banned ads, radio/tv ads)
    • 4. Organizational websites
    • 5. Direct contact (phone or email)
  40. 4 Applicant Reactions to Recruiters
    • 1. the influence of the recruiter vs the job characteristics
    • 2. the influence of a recruiter on attitudes and behaviors
    • 3. Demographics of recruiters
    • 4. influential recruiter behaviors (warmth and knowledge of the job)
  41. 4 Applicant Reactions to the recruitment process
    • 1. Relationship of screening devices to the job
    • 2. Delay times in recruitment process
    • 3. Funding of recruitment process
    • 4. Credibility of recruiter during recruitment process
  42. Definition of job applicant
    -definition according to the EEOC and OFCCP

    -importance of establishing written application policies
  43. 8 Characteristics of a Mobility Path Policy
    • 1. Intent of policy is clearly communicated
    • 2. Policy is consistent with philosophy and values of top management
    • 3. Scope of policy is clearly articulated
    • 4. Employees' responsibilities and opportunities for development are clearly defined
    • 5. Supervisors' responsibilities for employee development are clearly stated
    • 6. Procedures are clearly described
    • 7. Rules regarding compensation and advancement are included
    • 8. Rules regarding benefits and benefit charges are included
  44. Closed recruitment:
    employees are not informed of job vacancies
  45. open recruitment:
    employees are made aware of job vacancies

    -job posting and bidding system
  46. The least expensive recruiting system is
    a closed system, but it may lead to high legal costs if minorities and women do not have equal access to jobs
  47. Managers want a person to start work immediately when they have a vacancy: which choice system offers the quickest response?
    a closed system
  48. An open system is more likely than a closed system to
    identify more candidates and hidden talent is likely to be overlooked
  49. a closed system is better than an open system at identifying
    people with specific KSAOs
  50. Which choice system may motivate migration of employees from critical and difficult to fill jobs
    an open system
  51. Which choice system enhances perceptions of fairness?
    an open system
  52. 7 Internal recruitment sources
    • 1. Job posting
    • 2. Intranet and intraplacement
    • 3. Talent management system
    • 4. Nominations
    • 5. In-house temporary pools
    • 6. Replacement and succession plans
    • 7. Career development centers
  53. a Talent management system is
    a comprehensive method for monitoring and tracking employee skills and abilities
  54. 4 steps to a talent management system
    • 1. Identify the KSAOs required for all jobs
    • 2. The complete set of KSAOs is compiled into a master list
    • 3. The current workforce will need to be assessed for its competence in this set of KSAOs
    • 4. When positions become open, manages make a query to the talent management system to determine which employees are ready to come into open positions
  55. a Talent Management System is often coupled with
    specific HR information systems (HRIS) to facilitate tracking KSAOs in the workforce
  56. Career Development Centers provide
    employees with opportunities to take interest inventories, assess their personal career goals, and interview with representatives across the organization
  57. Career Development Centers can be
    an effective retention tool for employees who desire a change, but the cost is often very high so ROI should be assessed regularly
  58. Distributive Justice
    perceived fairness of actual decision
  59. Procedural Justice
    Perceived fairness of process (policies and procedures)
  60. Bona fide seniority systems
    law permits use of seniority systems it they are not the result of an intention to discriminate
  61. 5 Ways to overcome barriers and improve advancement for Women and Minorities
    • 1. Examine the organizational culture
    • 2. Drive change through management commitment
    • 3. Foster inclusion
    • 4. Educate and support women in career development
    • 5. Measure for change
  62. Measurement:
    the process of assigning numbers to objects to represent quantities of an attribute of the objects
  63. Scores:
    the amount of the attribute being assessed
  64. Correlation between scores in measurement:
    a statistical measure of the relation between the two sets of scores
  65. 3 Examples of Measures
    • 1. Tests of applicant KSAOs
    • 2. Job performance ratings of employees
    • 3. Applicants' rating of their preferences for various types of job rewards
  66. Attribute/construct:
    knowledge of mechanical priniciples
  67. Standardization of Measurement involves
    controlling influence of extraneous factors on scores generated by a measure and ensuring scores obtained reflect the attribute measured
  68. 3 Properties of a standardized measure:
    • 1. Content is identical for all objects measured
    • 2. Administration of measure is identical for all objects
    • 3. Rules for assigning numbers are clearly specified and agreed on in advance.
  69. 4 Types of Measurement Levels
    • 1. Nominal
    • 2. Ordinal
    • 3. Interval
    • 4. Ratio
  70. Nominal Measurement level:
    -a given attribute is categorized and numbers are assigned to categories

    -No order or level implied among categories
  71. Ordinal measurement level (scale):
    -objects are rank-ordered according to how much of attribute they possess

    -represents relative differences among objects
  72. Interval measurement levels (scale):
    -objects are rank-ordered

    -Differences between adjacent points on measurement scale are equal in terms of attribute
  73. Ratio measurement level (scale):
    -similar to interval scales- equal differences between scale points for attribute being measured

    -have a logical or absolute zero point
  74. Assign the appropriate scale for the following test:

    What is your current position with [organization name]?
  75. Assign the appropriate scale for the following test:

    How long have you held in this position?
  76. Assign the appropriate scale for the following test:

    Which of the following classifies your organizational level?
    -Department head
    -First level supervisor
    -hourly worker
  77. Assign the appropriate scale for the following test:

    1= Strongly Disagree to 5= Strongly Agree

    -It makes me uneasy to see an error in my work.
    -One of my goals is to be perfect.
  78. Assign the appropriate scale for the following test:

    List from 1= most important to 10=least important

    -Laundry service
    -car wash

  79. Assign the appropriate scale for the following test:

    If a good friend asked if he should apply for a job like yours with your employer, what would you recommend?

    -not recommend at all
    -recommend to some extent
    -recommend to a large extent
  80. Assign the appropriate scale for the following test:

    What is your gender?
  81. Objective measures:
    rules used to assign numbers to attribute are predetermined, communicated, and applied through a system
  82. Subjective measures
    scoring system is more elusive, often involving a tater who assigns the numbers
  83. correlation coefficient
    Value of r summarizes both:

    -strength of relationship between two sets of scores and direction of relationship
  84. Correlation coefficient values can range from
    r= -1.0 to r= 1.0
  85. Correlation between two variable does not imply
    causation between them
  86. Practical significance of the Correlation Coefficient
    -refers to size of correlation coefficient
  87. The greater the degree of common variation between two variables,
    the more one variable can be used to understand another variable
  88. Statistical significance of the Correlation Coefficient
    -refers to likelihood a correlation exists in a population, based on the knowledge of the actual value of r in a sample from that population
  89. Significance level is expressed as
    p < value
  90. If p< .05,
    there are fewer than 5 chances in 100 of concluding there is a relationship in the population when, in fact, there is not.
  91. Reliability of Measures:
    Consistency of measurement of an attribute
  92. a measure is reliable to the extent it provides:
    a consistent set of scores to represent an attribute
  93. Reliability of measurement is of concern
    -both within a single time period and between time periods

    -for both objective and subjective measures
  94. 4 Types of Reliability:
    • 1. Internal Consistency (Objective)
    • 2. Test-retest (Objective)
    • 3. Interrater (Subjective)
    • 4. Intrarater (Subjective)
  95. Actual score =
    true score + error
  96. Deficiency Error:
    occurs when there is failure to measure some aspect of attribute assessed
  97. Contamination Error:
    Represents occurrence of unwanted or undesirable influence on the measure and on individuals being measured
  98. Reliability of a measure places an upper limit on
    the possible validity of a measure
  99. A highly reliable measure is not necessarily
  100. Reliability does not guarantee
    validity- it only makes it possible
  101. Validity:
    degree to which a measure truly measures the attribute it is intended to measure
  102. Accuracy =
    (A+C / A+B+C+D) x 100

    where A & C are correct predictions and B & D are Errors in predictions
  103. Two types of Validation studies
    • 1. Criterion-related validation
    • 2. Content Validation
  104. Criterion Measures:
    measures of performance on tasks and task dimensions
  105. Predictor measure:
    it taps into one or more of the KSAOs identified in job analysis
  106. Predictor-Criterion scores:
    must be gathered from a sample of current employees or job applicants
  107. Predictor-Criterion Relationship:
    the correlation must be calculated
  108. Content Validation involves
    demonstrating the questions/problems (predictor scores) are a representative sample of the kinds of situations occurring on the job
  109. Criterion measures are not used
    a judgement is made about the probable correlation between predictors and criterion measures
  110. Two situations to use Content Validation:
    1. When there are too few people to form a sample for criterion-related validation.

    2. When criterion measures are not available.
  111. 4 Preliminary Issues of Selection
    • 1. Logic of prediction
    • 2. Nature of predictors
    • 3. Development of the selection plan
    • 4. Selection sequence
  112. What counts in the Logic of Prediction model is
    the specific types of experiences required and the level of success at each
  113. Content Predictor: Sign
    a predisposition thought to relate to performance (e.g., personality)
  114. Content Predictor: Sample
    Observing behavior thought to relate to performance
  115. Content Predictor: Criterion
    actual measure of prior performance
  116. Form Predictor: Speed vs. Power
    How many versus what level
  117. Form Predictor: Paper/pencil vs. performance
    test in writing or in behavior
  118. Form Predictor: Objective vs. Essay
    much like multiple choice vs essay exam questions
  119. Form Predictor: Oral vs. written vs. computer
    how data are obtained
  120. 3 Content predictors
    • 1. Sign
    • 2. Sample
    • 3. Criterion
  121. 4 Form Predictors
    • 1. Speed vs. power
    • 2. Paper/pencil vs. performance
    • 3. Objective vs. essay
    • 4. Oral vs. Written vs. Computer
  122. Initial assessment methods:
    minimize the costs associated with substantive assessment methods by reducing the number of people assessed.
  123. With resumes and cover letters, information is controlled by the applicant and needs
    to be verified by other predictors to ensure accuracy and completeness
  124. 2 Major issues of Resumes and Cover Letters
    • 1. Large number received by organizations
    • 2. Falsification and misrepresentation of information
  125. Resumes and Cover Letters: Lack of research exists related to
    • -Validity or reliability
    • -Costs
    • -Adverse impact
  126. 3 Areas covered in Application blanks
    • 1. Educational experience
    • 2. Training
    • 3. Job experience
  127. Key advantage of Application Blanks
    Organization dictates information provided
  128. Major issue of Application Blanks
    Information requested should be critical to job success and reflect KSAOs relevant to job
  129. Biographical Information/ Biodata
    Personal history information of applicant's background and interests
  130. Biodata is used to predict
    future performance by examining past performance
  131. Biodata: test-retest reliability can be
  132. 3 Biodata issues
    • 1. Generalizability beyond first group?
    • 2. Although predictive validity exists, it is not clear what these inventories assess
    • 3. Falsification can be a big problem
  133. 2 Problems with Reference Reports
    1. Inability to discern more-qualified from less-qualified applicants

    2. Lack of standardization
  134. 2 Suggestions to improve credibility of Reference Reports
    1. Use a structured form

    2. Use a standardized scoring key
  135. Background checks
    method involves assessing reliability of applicants' behavior, integrity, and personal adustment
  136. 6 types of information requested in a background check:
    • 1. Criminal history
    • 2. Credit information
    • 3. Educational history
    • 4. Employment verification
    • 5. Driver license histories
    • 6. Workers' compensation claims
  137. 2 key issues with background checks
    • 1. Limited validity evidence
    • 2. Legal constraints on pre-employment inquiries
  138. The validity of reference reports depend on
    the source providing the information
  139. Initial interview begins the process of
    necessary differentiation
  140. The purpose of initial interview is
    to screen out most obvious cases of person/job mismatches
  141. the limitation of initial interview is that
    it is the most expensive method of initial assessment
  142. 7 Criteria in the Choice of Initial Assessment Methods
    • 1. Use
    • 2. Cost
    • 3. Reliability
    • 4. Validity
    • 5. Utility
    • 6. Applicant reactions
    • 7. Adverse impact
Card Set
154:HR: Exam 2
Exam 2