Attention Lecture

  1. best indictors of a person’s focus of attention is:
    where they’re looking; looking in one direction is the most direct way to shift attention; without periphery you can't read (means focus comes mostly from fovea)
  2. Balint's syndrome
    bilateral damage to the parietal/occipital junction that result in a set of symptoms: optic ataxia, ocular apraxia, simultanagnosia
  3. covert attention
    the ability to direct attention without overt alterations or changes in sensory receptors (ex: attending to a conversation without turning the eyes/head toward the speaker) [Helmholtz]
  4. cocktail party effect
    the idea that even in a crowded, stimulus filled room, a person can pay attention to one thign
  5. dichotic listening
    used by Cherry to test the cocktail party effect; provided competing speech inputs to the two ears of a normal subject through headphones --- subject had to shadow L-ear story and ignore R-ear inputs
  6. spatial cuing paradigm (Posner)
    subjects are told to only stare at fixation point (FP); cue in the form of an arrow appears & points to L or R; then a box [target] appears on the L or R; people are faster to correctly say which side box is on during a valid trial [target indicated by cue] than an invalid trial [target not indicated by cue]
  7. endogenous cuing
    cuing that results in the focusing of attention based on the subjects goals (ex: perform the task as instructed)
  8. exogenous (reflexive) cuing
    attention is controlled by low-level features of external stimuli and not by internal voluntary control
  9. Results of Posner's Experiment
    clearly show the effects of covert spatial attention (because the subjects weren't allowed to move their eyes); and shows that subjects were faster to detect the target when the arrow tells the truth; this difference in reaction time is a result of difference in attention; shifting attention requires time (which is very similar to the amount of time it takes to make eye movement)
  10. conjunction search
    type of search where the time it takes to determine whether a target's present/absent in an array increases with the numer of distracters present; utilizes attentive attention Triesman's experiment
  11. 'attentive' attention
    a form of attention used in a conjunctive search that takes a long amount of time because attention must be deployed in a sequential/serial manner through the array to find the target
  12. 'preattentive' attention
    a form of attention used in a pop-out search that takes a short amount of time (independent of the number of distractors) because target can be identified by a single feature (ex: color)
  13. pop-out search
    a flat search function that utilizes preattentive search and where reaction time doesn't increase as a function of set size; target can be identified only by a single feature
  14. following lesions to the right parietal lobe:
    patients may neglect the left visual field (as if they can't see it); ex: shown in patients who when they try to draw a figure, can only draw one side or another; a main impairment is seen when you present stimuli (sound or visual) on both sides of visual field at the same time
  15. when you damage the left hemisphere:
    you don’t get neglect of the right visual field (RVF); people think this is because the L. hemisphere represents RVF, and the R. hemisphere represents both LVF and RVF
  16. simultanagnosia
    inability to recognize more than one object shown at the same time; disturbance of visual attention; ex: a patient can see each object presented (ex: comb and spoon) but fails to see them all together
  17. optic ataxia
    inability to move the hand to an object using vision; symptom of Balint's Syndrome
  18. ocular apraxia
    inability to voluntarily control the gaze
  19. Bottom-up processing
    is 1) feature driven (feed forward coming from feature maps in Triesman’s theory; something about the item is conspicuous that makes you attend to it 2) reflextive/automatic; 3) exogenous
  20. Top-down processing
    moves from higher order areas to lower visual areas; it's goal or experience driven; involves a VOLUNTARY shift of attention (depends on effort put in); and is endogenous: internally directed; slower than bottom-up
  21. lateral intraparietal (LIP) cortex
    contains a map of neurons (retinotopically-coded when the eyes are fixed) representing the saliency of spatial locations and attention to these spatial locations; it can be used by the oculomotor system for targeting eye movements

    • ·LIP used
    • to be thought to be important for eye movements --- now known to be important
    • for attention, because you get the same effects without moving your eyes
  22. -stable array: same stimuli on all the
    time, nothing automatically appears to capture monkey’s attention
Card Set
Attention Lecture
Quiz 2