A&P I Muscles

  1. Three Types of Muscle Tissue:
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    • Skeletal
    • Cardiac
    • Smooth
  2. Skeletal Muscle
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    Comprised of very long muscle cells, this muscle tissue is found in the muscles that move the skeleton and able to be controlled voluntarily (voluntary muscle). In addition, this tissue type displays alternating light and dark bands giving the appearance of stripes and striations
  3. Cardiac Muscle
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    Muscle tissue found only in the heart. Similar to skeletal tissue, also has striations. However, unlike skeletal tissue, for the most part cardiac tissue can not be controlled and is thusly considered involuntary. There is some neuronal regulation that controls the beating of the heart but that occurs at a subconscious level.
  4. Smooth Muscle
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    This type of muscle tissue is found in the walls of hollow visceral organs such as the stomach and the bladder. This tissue type lacks striations and can not be consciously regulated or controlled (involuntary muscle)
  5. Define: Excitability
    The ability to recieve or respond to stimuli
  6. Define: Contractility
    The ability to shorten forcibly when adequately stimulated
  7. Define: Extensibility
    The ability to be stretched or extended
  8. Define: Elasticity
    The ability of a muscle fiber to recoil and resume its normal resting length after being stretched or contracted
  9. Define: Producing movement
    The movement of the skeleton
  10. Define: Maintaining Posture
    The ability to make minute changes in positioning to maintain normal position
  11. Define: Stabilizing Joints
    Muscle tissue and muscle connections surround joints and keep them in position
  12. Define: Generating Heat
    Muscles generate heat as they contract thereby maintaining normal body temp
  13. Brake Down of Skeletal Muscle
    Muscle --> Fascile --> Muscle fiber --> Muscle Cell
    • Muscle: A bundle of muscle fascicles
    • Fascicle: A bundle of muscle fibers
    • Muscle fiber: Is a muscle cell
    • Muscle Cell: Contains Myosin and Actin
  14. Endomysium
    "within the muscle"- A sheath of primarily reticular fibers that covers the muscle fascicle
  15. Perimysium
    "around the muscle"- A sheath of fibrous connective tissue that covers the muscle fascicle
  16. Epimysium
    "outside the muscle"- A shaeth of dense irregular connective tissue that covers the whole muscle
  17. The Origin
    • The place of attachment which provides little to no movement (bone moves to origin)
  18. The Insertion
    The place of attachment which provides the most movement (movable bone)
  19. Direct or Fleshy attachments
    The epimysium fuses to the periosteum of a bone or perchondrium of a cartilage
  20. Indirect attachments
    The connective tissue wrappings of the muscle extend beyond the muscle to form either a rope like tendon or a sheet like aponeurosis
  21. Sarcaolemma
    Cell membrane of the muscle cell
  22. Sacroplasm
    Cytoplasm of the muscle cell
  23. Myoglobin
    Red pigment that stores oxygen in the muscle
  24. Myofibrils
    Rod-like fibers that run parallel down the length of the muscle fiber. Hundreds to thousands of myofibrils can be found in one fiber and account approximately for 80% of the cellular volume.
  25. Myosin Heads
    Globular heads on Myosin .


Card Set
A&P I Muscles
Chapter 9: Muscles & Muscle Tissues