Project Quality Management.txt

  1. What is PMI's definition of Quality?
    Quality is the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill requirements (either stated requirements or implied)
  2. What are the three processes in Project Quality Management and to which process groups to they belong?
    • Plan Quality - Planning
    • Perform Quality Assurance - Executing
    • Perform Quality Control - Monitoring and Controlling
  3. What is Total Quality Management (TQM)?
    Theory popularized after WWII that everyone in the company can impact quality. Focus is on process and results, rather than the product produced.
  4. What is Continuous Improvement / Kaizen?
    Constant process improvement via small changes to product and service
  5. Why is JIT considered a quality technique?
    Just In Time inventory forces quality because there is zero extra inventory for waste
  6. What is the focus of ISO 9000?
    Ensures that companies document what they do and do what they document
  7. In a normal distribution, what percentage of outcomes is within 1 standard deviation?
  8. Would a high standard deviation indicate a tight range of values or a wide range of values?
    Wide range - generally a lower quality indicator
  9. Describe the philosophy of Six Sigma
    Six Sigma focuses on controlling process and measuring results to reduce defects. It is closely tied with the statistical concept of standard deviation.
  10. Out of 1,000,000 outputs, how many defects would be expected at 1 sigma? At 6 sigma?
    At 1 sigma, 317,500 defects are expected. At 6 sigma, only 3.4 defects are expected. Obviously 6 sigma represents much higher quality.
  11. What is the difference between attribute sampling and variable sampling?
    Attribute sampling is binary - either it conforms to standards or it doesn't. Variable sampling is quantifyable, but not necessarily binary.
  12. What is the difference between special causes and common causes?
    Special causes are unusually and generally preventable - you aim to control special causes with process improvement. Common causes are normal and generally not controllable.
  13. What is the difference between tolerances and control limits?
    Tolerances specify a range of values wherein the PRODUCT is acceptable. Control limits specify a range of values (generally 3 std dev) wherein the PROCESS is in control.
  14. When is Plan Quality executed in a project?
    Early in the project with the other planning processes. The Quality Management plan is produced as a component of the project plan.
  15. Why is Plan Quality executed concurrently with other planning processes?
    Decisions made about quality can impact other decisions related to scope, time, cost, and risk.
  16. What are the 5 key inputs to Plan Quality?
    • Scope Baseline
    • Stakeholder register
    • Cost performance baseline
    • Schedule baseline
    • Risk register
  17. What are the 7 key tools used by Plan Quality?
    • Cost-Benefit Analysis
    • Cost of Quality (COQ)
    • Control Charts
    • Benchmarking
    • Design of Experiments (DOE)
    • Statistical Sampling
    • Flowcharting
  18. What is the golden rule of cost-benefit analysis?
    The benefits of quality activities must outweigh the costs
  19. What technique examines the costs associated with items that don't conform to quality standards?
    Cost of Quality (COQ)
  20. How far apart are the control lines on a control chart typically set?
    3 standard deviations above and below
  21. What is the "Rule of Seven" on control charts?
    If seven consecutive data points appear on the same side of the mean (even if those points are in control), they should be investigated.
  22. What quality technique compares a project's quality standards to other baseline projects?
  23. Which quality technique uses data analysis to determine optimal conditions?
    Design of Experiments
  24. How is Flowcharting used as a quality tool?
    Flowcharts can help predict where quality problems may occur. It also helps illustrate cause and effect.
  25. What are the 4 key outputs from Plan Quality?
    • Quality Management Plan
    • Quality Metrics
    • Quality Checklists
    • Process Improvement Plan
  26. Which 2 outputs from Plan Quality are project management plan components?
    • Quality Management Plan
    • Process Improvement Plan
  27. Which process uses the Quality Checklists produced by the Plan Quality process?
    Perform Quality Control
  28. Which quality process is an executing process?
    Perform Quality Assurance
  29. What is the primary focus of Perform Quality Assurance?
    Primary focus is on process improvement.
  30. True or False. Perform Quality Assurance focuses on inspecting products for quality and measuring defects.
    False. Perform Quality Assurance is focused on PROCESS improvement.
  31. What are the 4 key inputs to Perform Quality Assurance
    • Project Management Plan (Quality Mgmt Plan & Process Improvement Plan)
    • Quality Metrics
    • Work Performance Information
    • Quality Control Metrics
  32. Why is Work Performance Information a relevant input to Perform Quality Assurance?
    It helps identify areas where process improvement is needed as well as areas where process improvements have worked.
  33. Why are Quality Control Measurements a relevant input to Perform Quality Assurance?
    PRODUCT quality measurements are fed back to Perform QA to inform whether PROCESS improvements are leading to PRODUCT improvements
  34. In addition to the tools used by Plan Quality and Perform Quality Control, what 2 unique tools are used by Perform Quality Assurance?
    • Quality Audits
    • Process Analysis
  35. What are the 2 goals of quality audits?
    To improve acceptance of the product and improve the overall cost of quality
  36. What is the single most important output from Perform Quality Assurance?
    Change Requests - most are PROCEDURAL CR's
  37. Which quality process is a Monitoring and Controlling process?
    Perform Quality Control
  38. What is the primary focus of Perform Quality Control?
    Looking at product and project deliverables to see if they conform to quality
  39. When is Perform Quality Control executed?
    Throughout the project as deliverables are produced
  40. What is the theme for the tools used by Perform Quality Control?
  41. What are the 6 inputs to Perform Quality Control?
    • Project Management Plan (Quality Management Plan)
    • Quality Metrics
    • Quality Checklists
    • Work Performance Measurements
    • Approved Change Requests
    • Deliverables
  42. What are the 9 tools used by Perform Quality Control?
    • Cause and Effect diagrams (aka Fishbone or Ishikawa diagrams)
    • Control Charts
    • Flowcharting
    • Histogram
    • Pareto Chart
    • Run Chart
    • Scatter Diagram
    • Statistical Sampling
    • Inspection
  43. What is the value of Cause and Effect / Fishbone / Ishikawa diagrams in Perform Quality Control?
    They help identify the root cause of quality problems
  44. A Pareto Chart is one specific application of what graphical bar chart?
  45. Define Pareto's Law.
    Pareto's Law, aka the 80/20 rule, states that 80% of problems come from 20% of the causes
  46. How is a Pareto Chart constructed?
    It is a bar chart/histogram showing defects ranked from greatest to least. It may also show a line graph to illustrate cumulative defects.
  47. What is the value of a Run Chart in Perform Quality Control?
    Allows you to chart defect trends over time
  48. How are Scatter Diagrams used in Perform Quality Control?
    They illustrate the value (positive, negative, or no correlation) of a variable against defects
  49. What are the 4 key outputs from Perform Quality Control?
    • Quality Control Measurements
    • Validated Changes
    • Validated Deliverables
    • Change Requests
  50. Which output from Perform Quality Control is fed back into the Perform Quality Assurance process?
    Quality Control Measures - helps demonstrate whether PROCESS improvements have led to PRODUCT improvements
  51. Which output from Perform Quality Control is a key input to Verify Scope?
    Validated Deliverables
Card Set
Project Quality Management.txt
PMP Project Quality Management