Microbiology Ch 1 - Ch 3

  1. Robert Hooke contribution?
    • 1665 observed cork cells using compound lens.
    • termed word "cells" began "cell theory"
  2. Antony Van Leeuwenhoek contribution?
    • first observations of living cells taken from his own body.
    • first microscope using magnifying lens
  3. spontaneous generation
    some forms of life could arise spontaneously from nonliving matter
  4. spontaneous generation myths
    • fleas from hair
    • flies from fresh and rotting fruit
    • locusts from green leaves
    • raccoons from hollow tree trunks
    • termites from rotten wood
    • eels from slimy mud at the bottome of bodies of water
    • mosquitoes from stagnant pond water
  5. who proved existance of microorganisms?
  6. what experiment did Pasteur use to prove microorganisms exist?
    filtered air through cotton plug showing that filterable particles cause contamination of sterile broths.
  7. what steps were involved in pasteur's experiment?
    • trapped air escapes from open end flask (sterile broth)
    • bacteria/dust from air settle in bend of flasks
    • broth sterile indefinately
    • flask tilted so sterile broth makes contact with contaminated bacteria/dust from air
    • bacteria multiplies in broth
  8. why was Pasteur lucky he used animal broth? how would his experiment have been different?
    if he used vegetable broth or soil broth there would have been endospores present and that has a bacterial state that is very hard to kill
  9. define microbiology?
    study of microorganisms
  10. what techniques are utilized in microbiology?
    • aseptic technique
    • pure culture technique
    • microscopic observation of whole organism's
  11. who is Linnaeus and what what his contribution?
    establish system of scientific nomenclature, where each organism has 2 names, the genus and species.

    • genus = first word, capitalized
    • species=italicized, lower case
  12. 4 domains for classifying microorganism?
    • 1. bacteria
    • 2. archaea
    • 3. eukarya
    • 4. Nucleocytoplasmic Large DNA Virus (NCLDV) NEW DOMAIN
  13. types of bacteria
    • eubacteria
    • gram negative
    • gram positive
    • acid fast
    • cyanobacteria (blue green algae)
  14. what type of nutrients do bacteria have?
    • 1. chemotrophs- use chemical for energy
    • 2. phototrophs- use light for energy
  15. examples of bacterial diseases?
    • tetanus
    • botulism
    • gonorrhea
    • chlamydia
    • TB
  16. durable state of bacteria?
    some form endospores
  17. how to tell how many clusters or numbers of bacteria?
    • (diplo)- 2
    • (strepto)- row or line
    • (staphylo)- cluster
  18. what does diplocoques mean?
    2 sphere shaped bacteria
  19. what does streptocoques mean ?
    line or row of sphere shaped bacteria
  20. what does staphylocoques mean?
    cluster of sphere shaped bacteria
  21. what color is cyanobacteria?
  22. description of Archaea?
    • prokaryotic
    • lack peptidoglycan
    • live in extreme environments
    • none are known to cause disease
  23. types of archaea?
    • methanogens- produce methane as waste product of respiration
    • extreme halophiles- extreme salty environment
    • extreme thermophiles-extreme hot, sulfurous environment
  24. basic qualities of bacteria
    • prokaryotes
    • simple single cell (unicellular),
    • genetic material not enclosed in nuclear membrane,
    • peptidoglycan cell walls
    • reproduce by binary fusion
    • appear in various shapes:

    • * Bacillus- rod like
    • *Coccus- spherical or ovoid
    • *Spiral- corkscrew or curved
  25. qualities of fungi
    • eukaryotes
    • chitin cell wall
    • use organic chemical for energy
  26. which fungi are unicellular/multicellular?
    • unicellular: yeast
    • multicellular: mold/mushrooms
  27. what is hyphae?
    filaments that consist of masses of mycelia in molds adn mushrooms
  28. qualaties of protozoa
    • eukaryotes
    • unicellular
    • slime molds, flagellates and ciliates
    • absorb/ingest organic chemical for energy
    • some form durable cysts
  29. examples of protozoa diseases?
    • malaria
    • giardia
    • amoebic dysentery
  30. qualaties of helminths?
    • eukaryotes
    • flatworms, roundworms, nematodes
    • some are multicellular animal parasites
    • microscopic stages in life cycle
  31. examples of diseases of helminth?
    • trichinosis
    • hook worm
    • tape worm
  32. qualities of algae?
    • eukaryotes
    • brown, red, green
    • di-atoms
    • in larvae stage are swimmers
    • cellulose cell walls
    • uses photosynthesis for energy
  33. disease of algae?
    some poisoning associated with unicellular types
  34. qualaties of virus?
    • not cells but some have lipid membranes and require cells to reproduce
    • acellular, obligate intracellular parasites
    • cant cure only treat s/s
  35. diseases of virus?
    • cold'
    • flu
    • HIV
    • herpes
    • chicken pox
  36. what are prions?
    consist of DNA, RNA, protiens
  37. disease from prions?
    • CJD
    • Kuru
    • Alpners syndrome
    • (infant) Scrapie
    • (infant) CWD
  38. How do microbes influence ecology?
    • produce energy to ecosystem
    • make nutrients avail from inorganic sources
    • decomposers-liberate nutrients from no longer living sources
    • form symcioses (mycorrhizal fungi assoc with plant root, found in legume nodules)
    • serve as endosymbionts (chloroplast, mitochondria)
  39. how do microbes influence industry?
    • fermentation products -cheese, hyogurt, bread, pickles
    • biotech- recombinant products such as insulin/vaccines
    • bioremediation- microbes used at max. levels to degrade other microbes
  40. Historians and thier contributions to microbes
    • 1796- Edward Jenner - innoculated person w/ cowpox and they were then protected from small pox (immune) and coined term Vaccination
    • 1860- Joseph LIster- inspired by Pasteur, used chem disinfect to prvent surgical wound infect.
    • 1876- Robert Koch- proof that bateria causes anthrax and proved experimental steps to prove specific microbe causes specific disease (germ theory of disease
  41. what is normal microbiota?
    • prevent pathogens
    • produce growth factors such as folic acid and vit K
    • hygeine hypothesis- we are too clean so immune system out of whack.
  42. resistance
    ability for body to ward off disease
  43. why does disease occur?
    when pathogen overcomes host's resistance
  44. conversion of units of measurement?
    nm= nanometer
    • 1 um = 10 ^ -6 = 10 ^ -3 mm
    • 1 nm= 10 ^ -9 = 10 ^ -6 mm
    • 1000 nm = 1 um
    • 0.001 um = 1 nm
  45. simple microscope
    1 lens
  46. compound microscope
    • images from objective lens (eye) magnifies through second lens (object)
    • total magnification = objective lens X ocular lens
  47. define resolution
    • lenses to distinguish two points
    • shorter wavelengths of light provide greater resolution
  48. what increases resolution?
    • immersion oil d/t light not bouncing or bending
    • blue light
    • using electrons
  49. what is refractive index
    light bending ability of medium
  50. why is immersion oil used for better resolution?
    keep light from bending so it doesnt miss the small high magnification lens
  51. brightfeild illumination
    • dark objects visible against bright background
    • light is reflected off specimen adn doesnt enter objective lens
  52. darkfield illumination
    • light objects visible against dark background
    • light reflected off specimen enter objective lens
  53. what microscope we use in lab?
    brightfield illumination
  54. phase contrast microscopy
    accentuates diffractrion of light that passes through specimen
  55. fluorescent microscopy
    • uses UV light
    • fluorescent substance absorb UV light and emit visible light
    • cells may be staind with fluorescent dye
  56. confocal microscopy
    • uses fluorochromes and laser
    • laser illuminates each plane in specimen to produce 3 D image
  57. what are the 2 types of highest resolution microcopy?
    • electron Microscopy- uses electrons (shorter wavelength then light)
    • Scanning Probe and Atomic Force Microscopy (creates image with similar resolution but does not use electrons)
  58. what is transmission electron microscope?
    • electron microscope that transmits electrons through substance
    • specimen may be stain with heavy metal salt
    • sliced and very thin sections
  59. what is scanning electric microscopy?
    • electron microscope where electron gun fires beam of electrons
    • electrons bounce off surface of specimen
    • results in 3 D image
  60. scanning probe microscopy
    • uses metal probe to scan specimen
    • resolution 1/100 of atom
  61. atomic force microscopy
    • uses metal and diamond probe inserted into specimen
    • 3D image
  62. how to prepare specimen?
    • thin film of soln smeared on slide
    • smear is "fixed" or attached to slide (kills microbes- overheating can distort shape)
  63. purpose of staining
    create contrast
  64. definition of contrast
    • results from differences in index of refraction between specimen and background
    • or results with difference in index of refraction within specimen and number of visible colors in specimen
  65. what colors are highest contrast?
    black / white
  66. what increases contrast?
    • black / white color
    • stains
    • closing the iris diaphragm
  67. simple stains
    • use of a single basic (alkaline) dye
    • mordant may be used to hold stain or coat specimen
  68. what is mordant?
    • coating used to hold stain on specimen
    • makes specimen appear larger
    • iodine soln.
  69. differential stains?
    • gram stain
    • acid fast
    • negative
  70. what does gram stain classify?
    • a) gram positive
    • b) gram negative
  71. what can kill gram positive bacteria
    penicillin and detergents
  72. gram negative bacteria and antibiotics
    gram negative bacteria more resistant to antibiotic
  73. color changes with gram positive/ gram negative stain?
    • gram positive will be stay purple color
    • gram negative will stain red
  74. how to do a gram stain?
    • add alkaline crystal violet (simple stain)
    • add iodine (mordant - attach to crystal violet) all cells purple
    • decolorize with alcohol (crytal violet washes out gram negative cells)
    • counter stain with safranin
    • gram positive remains purple
    • gram negative counterstains red
  75. acid fast staining
    cells that retain basic stain in presence of acid- alcohol
  76. what happens to non acid fast cells?
    loose basic stain when rinsed with alcohol and are usually counterstained with different basic stain.
  77. what stain is used to look for pathogenic TB?
    acid fast staining
  78. negative staining
    • usefull to visualize capsule around bacteria
    • stains background dark (doesnt stain bacteris only background)
    • less distortion of cells then other special stains
    • no heat used
  79. if halo around bacteria?
    bacteria is sticky if it has a halo around it and wants to stick. if no halo, then not sticky. If it is sticky then it has a sugar coating around capsule
  80. domains of eukarya?
    • protist/protozoa
    • algae
    • fungi
    • helminth
  81. common myths to spontaneous generation
    • Toads, snakes and mice being born of moist soil
    • Flies emerging from manure
    • Maggots (larvae of flies) could arise from decaying corpses.
    • Snakes from horse hairs in stagnant water
    • Mice from grain and cheese wrapped in a sweater
    • Maggots from rotting meat
    • Fleas from hair
    • Mosquitoes from stagnant pond water
    • Eels from slimy mud at the bottom of bodies of water
    • Locusts from green leaves
    • Termites from rotten wood
    • Raccoons from hollow tree trunks
  82. who was Francesco Redi and what did he contribute to microbiology?
    1668 maggots did not arise spontaneously from decaying meat
Card Set
Microbiology Ch 1 - Ch 3
Unit 1- chapter 1 and Chapter 3