Dmitri Bortwyansky (1751-1825)
- Russian Orthodox chapel master and then director of the imperial chapel choir at St. Petersburg.
- 1st to develop a new style of Russian church music.
- Inspired by the modal charts of the orthodox liturgy.
Samuel Sebastian Wesley (1810-1876)
Protestant anthem composer who helped with the new flood of music for Lutheran services and home devotion.
Richard Allen (1760-1831)
Published a hymn book designed for black congregations.
Lowell Mason (1792-1872)
- President of Handel and Haydn Society.
- Founded the Boston Academy of music.
- Introduced singing into the public schools.
- Composed over 1200 hymns.
Gioachino Rossini (1792-1868)
- The bel canto composer.
- Composed 39 operas.
- Helped establish bel canto.
- Operatic conventions endured for fifty years.
Isabella Colbran (1785-1845)
- Married Rossini.
Vincenzo Bellni (1801-1835)
- Bel canto composer.
- Perferred dramas of passion, with fast, gripping action.
- Wrote 10 operas; all serious.
- La sonnambula, normz
Gaetano Donizetti (1797-1848)
- Bel canto composer.
- Most enduring works are his serious operas-many of comics are still widely performed.
- Music often has a seamless continuity.
- Averted cadences that would draw applause until a major scene was finished.
- Wrote Lucia di lammermoor, 1835.
Giacomo Meyerbeer (1791-1864)
- Firmly establishes French Grand Opera.
- Wrote Les Huguenots.
- One of the founders of French Grand Opera.
Marie Talglioni (1804-1884)
- Ballerina who became preeminent, moving with a new lightness, grace, and freedom.
- Wore a sheer, translucent skirt, and shoes that allowed her to stand on point.
Carl Maria von Weber (1786-1826)
Composer who wrote Der Freischutz, which firmly estblished German Romantic Opera.
Der Freischutz (1817-1821)
- German Opera by Carl Maria von Weber.
- Full of unusual orchestration and harmonies.
- Ordinary people were center stage talking and singing about their concerns, their love, and their fears.
- Romantic German Opera.
E. T. A. Hoffmann (1776-1822)
- Poet, novelist, critic, and composer.
- Influenced R. Schummann.
Handel and Haydn Society
- One of the oldest music organizations in the U. S.
- Doing handel and Haydn oratorios as the core of the rep.
- Fixed idea or obsession, a melody that is used over and over to represent an obssession of sorts.
- Berlioz, Hero's Love, Symphony Fantastique
- When stringed instruments hit the wood with their bow.
- Berlioz-Symphonie Fantastique
- Repeated motive at the end of Act I, usually.
Prix de Rome
A composition prize that paid a stipend for the winner to live and work in Rome.
German Romantic Opera
- Uses simple, folk-like, Germanic melodies.
- Chromantic harmony, orchestral color and emphasis on inner voices.
- Elements of magic/supernatural.
- Plots based on Germanic legend, fairytale, myth or history.
- Pastoral scenes.
- Cast of supernatural, wealthy, commoners.
- Good always wins.
Opera Comique 19th cent.
- Uses spoken dialogue unstead of recitative.
- Less pretentious than grand opera.
- Required fewer singers and players.
- Straight foward comedy.
Someone who books and stages operas and other musical events.
A genre of musical theater that combined spoken dialogue with background music.
Hearkening back to an earlier theme or motive.
A theatre designed for opera or music festivals.
- The first chord (F-B-D#-G#)
- The Resolution is at first uncertain.
- Aug. 6th in A minor.
A fast, brilliant, concluding section in an Italian operatic aria.
Paris in the 19th century
Was the center of opera in the early 19th century.
- Instrument intro.
- Recitative for soloist or in dialogue.
- Tempo di mezzo.
Aria Style of Rossini
- Tuneful melody with clear phrasing.
- Lively Rhythm.
- Orchestra is spare.
- Simple harmonic schemes.
- Rossini cresendo.
- Orchestra accompanied recitiative.
Contributions of Lowell Mason to America
- Introduced music into public school curriculum.
- He was president of the Handal sociely.
- He helped found the Boston Academy of Music.
- He composed over 1000 hymn tunes.
- Encourage a cappella performances of older music and of new works in similar styles.
- Named after S. Cecilia, the patron saint of music.
To restore all-male choirs of boys and men and to revive 16th cent. unaccompanied polyphony.
- A song for more than one voice.
- A song for chorus, parallel in function and style to the lied or parlor song.
Amaeteur chorus whose members sing for their own enjoyment and may pay dues to purchase music, pay conductors and meet other expenses.
A tradition of group singing that arose in the 19th century america, named after the notation used in song collections in which the shape of the note heads indicates the solmization syllables, allowing for esy sight-reading parts.
A massive choral work by Berlioz.
Mass in A-flat
One of Schubert's choral masterworks.
A sacred work with operatic elements by Rossini.
Rev. Richard Allen
Published a hymnbook designed for an all-black congregation
- The cantabile from Norma's cavatina.
- She's saying that the time is not yet ripe to fight the Romans.
- Enacts a ritual to implore the chaste goddess, the moon, to bring peace with the Romans.
American Opera Scene 19th century
Operatic excerpts became the popular music of the time.
- German Romantic opera by Weber (1817-1821)
- Contants include the "Wolf's Glen" scene.
Characteristics of French Grand Opera
- Sung throughout.
- Few arias, almost no recitatives.
- Action move through scenes strategically placed in the drama.
- Ensembles of all sizes used frequently, especially chorus.
- Most important grand operas are produced at L'Opera in Paris.
French Grand Opera by Meyerbeer. (1832-36)
Lucia di Lammermoor
- Opera seria by Donizetti (1835)
- Famous for mad scene
- Romantic ballet by Adolphe Adam (1841)
- Featured Marie Taglione as ballerina
Opera seria by Bellini (1831)