Mana test 2
An action managers take to attain a goal of an organization
Advantage obtained when a firm outperforms its rivals.
A unique strength that rivals lack
Sustainable competitive advantage
a distinctive competency that rivals cannot easily match or imitate
barrier to imitation
factors that make it difficult for a firm to imitate the competitve position of a rival
prior investments in a particular way of doing business that are difficult to change and limit a firm's ability to imitate a successful rival
business level strategy
strategy concerned with deciding how a firm should compete in the industries in which it has elected to participate
focusing managerial energy and attention on doing everything possible to lower the costs of the organization
economies of scale
cost advantages derived from a large sales volume
increasing the value of a product offering in the eyes of consumers.
serving a limited number of segments
broad market strategy
serving the entire market
using innovation to offer more value at a lower cost than competitors
activities having to do with the design, creation, and delivery of the product; its marketing; and its support and after-sale service.
activities that provide inputs that allow the primary activities to occur
actions that managers take to try to outmaneuver ricals in the market
strategy concerned with deciding which industries a firm should compete in and how the firm should enter or exit industries
moving upstream into businesses that supply inputs to a firm's core business or downstream into businesses that use the outputs of the firm's core business.
entry into new business areas
diversification into a business related to the existing business activities of an enterprise by distinct similarities in one or more activities in the value chain.
diversification into a business not related to existing business activities of an enterprise by distinct similarities in one or more activities in the value chain.
economies of scope
cost reductions associated with sharing resources across businesses
internal governance skills
the ability of snior managers to elicit high levels of performance from the constituent businesses of a diversified enterprise
the process through which managers regulate the activities of individuals and units
a performance requirement that the orgainzation is meant to attain on an ongoing basis.
an objective that, if achieved, helps an orgainzation attain or exceed its major goals.
making sure through personal inspection and direct supervision that individuals and units behave in a way that is consistent with the goals of an organization
control through a formal system of writtin rules and procedures
setting goals for units or individuals to achieve and monitoring performance against those goals
a situation that occurs when the link between cause and effect is ambiguous
regulating behavior by socializing employees so that they internalize the values and assumptions of an organization and act in a manner that in consistent with them
occurs when employees regulate their own behavior so that it is congruent with organizational goals.
devices used to encourage and reward appropriate employee behavior
occurs when employees pressure others within their team or work group to perform up to or in excess of the expectations of the organization
regulating the behavior of individuals and units within an enterprise by setting up an internal market for some valuable resource such as capital.
the balanced scrorecard
a control approach that suggests managers use several different financial and operational metrics to track performance and control an organization
an informal channel through which managers can collect important information
the values and assumptions shared within an organization
the observable symbols and signs of an organization's culture
the programmed routines of daily organizational life that dramatize the organization's culture
planned activities conducted specifically for the benefit of an audience.
an organizational culture in which employees focus on the changing needs of customers and other stakholders and support initiatives to keep pace with these changes.
the process by which individuals learn the values, expected behaviors, and social knowledge necessry to assume their roles in an organization
the practice of diagnosing cultural relations between companies and determining the extent to which cultural clashes will likely occur.
Mana test 2
MANA TEST 2