Educational Psych Exam 2

  1. "observable change in behavior"
    behaviorist definition of learning
  2. "change in internal mental processes that may or may not be reflected in behavior"
    cognitive definition of learning
  3. "change in knowledge and skills that may or mey not be reflected in behavior"
    sociocognitive definition of learning
  4. association is formed between automatic, involuntary, or emotional or physiological responses and new stimuli based on the principle of contiguity
    classical conditioning
  5. produces automatic physiological and/or emotional responses
    unconditioned stimulus
  6. automatic response to an unconditioned stimulus
    unconditioned response
  7. elicits the response after classical conditioning occurs
    conditioned stimulus
  8. response that has been learned through classical conditioning
    conditioned response
  9. tendency for a new stimulus that is similar to the original stimulus to produce a similar response
  10. voluntary responses are learned to stimuli as a result of the consequence of the response
    operant conditioning
  11. "behaviors that are followed by positive outcomes are strengthened, and behaviors that are followed by negative outcomes are weakened"
    Thorndike's Law of Effect
  12. when a stimulus is presented after a behavior and the behavior increases as a result
    positive reinforcement
  13. taking away, or withdrawing, and inhibiting or aversive consequence to strengthen a behavior
    negative reinforcement
  14. presenting an aversive stimulus when an undesirable behavior is displayed
    presentation punishment
  15. taking away something that is desirable to students to stop aversive behaviors
    removal punishment
  16. gradual disappearance of a learned response
  17. reinforcement provided at every occurance of desired behavior
    continuous reinforcement
  18. EXAMPLE: smiling every time a student raises their hand before speaking
    continuous reinforcement
  19. reinforcement is provided only after some occurrences of the desired behavior
    intermittent reinforcement
  20. EXAMPLE: the physical education teacher allows a class to choose their activity for the day because they have picked up their equipment for the last week
    intermittent reinforcement
  21. students can predict when reinforcement will occur
    intermittent reinforcement: fixed
  22. EXAMPLE: the music teacher allows the choir to have a free day after every successful concert
    intermittent reinforcement: fixed
  23. students cannot predict when reinforcement will occur
    intermittent reinforcement: variable
  24. EXAMPLE: the teacher rewards students with free reading time whenever he/she considers that they have earned it through effort on their homework
    intermittent reinforcement: variable
  25. reinforcement is provided after a certain number of desirable behaviors is performed
    ratio reinforcement
  26. reinforcement is provided after the passage of a certain amount of time
    interval reinforcement
  27. students can predict that reinforcement will occur (fixed) after they perform a certain number of desirable behaviors (ratio)
    fixed ratio
  28. students can predic that reinforcement will occur (fixed) after a certain amount of time has elapsed (interval)
    fixed interval
  29. students cannot predict (variable) the exact number of desirable behaviors (ratio) that is necessary for reinforcement to occur
    variable ratio
  30. students cannot predict (variable) the exact amount of time (interval) that needs to elapse for reinforcement to occur
    variable interval
  31. using signals to indicate that a certain response is desirable or undesirable (flicking lights on and off)
  32. operant conditioning method that teaches new behaviors by reinforcing successive approximations toward the target behavior
  33. making a verbal or written contract between teacher and student where the student agrees to behave acceptably and the teacher agrees to provide incentive
    contigency contracting
  34. "people have a heirarchy of reinforcers and more prefered activities reinforce less prefered activities"
    Premack Principle
  35. focuses on learning that has been observed from others or observing the consequences of others
    sociocognitive learning
  36. model of human memory and learning that explains how info enters our memory system, is processed, stored, and finally retrieved to complete learning tasks
    information processing model
  37. sights, sounds, smell (raw input)
    content in sensory memory
  38. symbols, words, ideas, images (meaningful)
    content in short-term memory
  39. 1-3 seconds
    duration of info in sensory memory
  40. 15-30 seconds
    duration of info in short-term
  41. cognitive processes: attention and perception
    sensory memory
  42. cognitive processes: storing, encoding
    short-term memory
  43. combining seperate items into larger groups
  44. using one's prior knowlege to expand on a new idea, thereby storing more info than what was originally presented
  45. providing an orderly structure to multiple pieces of information
  46. process of becoming aware of information in long-term memory and usually spreads from one idea to the next that is related to the first idea
    knowlege activation
  47. uses the info we have stored in long-term to construct a reasonable answer
    knowlege reconstruction
  48. organizational structures that are provided before new complex information is learned
    advance organizer
  49. stragedies to improve memory by encoding simple info into meaningful ways
  50. combining visual and auditory information
    dual processing
  51. how individuals construct knowlege in their mind
    individual constructivism
  52. where learners share individual perspectives with others to construct understandings together that would not be possible to construct individually
    social constructivism
  53. an individual's congnition about his/her cognition, or "knowing about knowing"
  54. occurs when something a person learns at one time influences how a person learns or performs in a later situation
  55. the type of thinking people apply to achieve a desired end state that is different from initial state
    problem solving
  56. attention, retention, production, motivation
    4 important processes in observational learning
  57. the generation of many nonstandard answers to a problem
    divergent thinking
  58. the standard way of answering questions and typically assessed by means of conventional intelligent tests
    convergent thinking
  59. when did the civil war begin? (knowlege); give a brief summary of the civil war in your own words (comprehension)
    low level thinking; Bloom's Taxonomy
  60. where would you position your troops at the battle of gettysburg? (application); can you think of several causes of the civil war? (analysis); synthesis; and evaluation
    higher level thinking; Bloom's Taxonomy
Card Set
Educational Psych Exam 2
This test will kick my ass.