Cognitive Neuroscience

  1. Initiation and Cessation of Action
    individuals w executive dysfunction have psychological inertia- its difficult for them to initiate a path of action, and then difficult to stop once they are on that path
  2. Perseveration
    tendency to repeatedly perform the same behavioral response even when it is no longer appropriate (WCST)
  3. Environmental dependency syndrome
    • person's behavior is drven by environmental cues
    • respond to cues in an automatic stimulus-response manner that has been conditioned by learning rather than by an internally generated goal
  4. In environmental dependency syndrome, the _____is not functioning
    the supervisory attention system not able to overide behavior (frontal lobe damage)
  5. Inhibition
    • when you have to respond or withhold an action/response (go-no-go)
    • inferior prefrontal cortex tied to inhibition, involved in overriding prepotent responses
  6. What brain region involved in Inhibition
    Inferior prefrontal regions
  7. How will inferior frontal cortex damage pts do on no/ no-go task?
    not well- won't be able to inhibit
  8. Self-Monitoring
    • Evaluation of the appropriatentess of one's actions and plans
    • Error-related negativity
  9. Error-related Negativity
    • tied to a person knowing they made an error
    • use EMG- when EMG shows movement, timelock to EEG and get larger voltage deflection when they get it wrong
  10. ERN emphasis on speed vs accuracy
    • Emphasis on speed: not much of an ERN
    • Emphasis on accuracy: large ERN
  11. Self-Monitoring is indexed by
    the ERN
  12. The ERN occurs
    • 100-150 milliseconds after a response
    • is greater when accuracy is emphasized
    • is greater, the larger the error
    • may index an emotional, not just a cognitive reaction
  13. Where is the ERN generated from according to dipole modeling?
    Anterior Cingulate Cortex
  14. Sequencing in pts with frontal damage
    • fine at recognition of which items appeared in the sequence
    • poor at determining which item appeared more recently
  15. Sequencing-self-ordering
    maybe sequencing is difficult bc experimenter controlled so let the patient control sequencing with self-ordered pointing task
  16. Results of sequencing-self ordering
    difficulties occur even when frontal lobe damage pts determine the sequence themselves
  17. Theories of Action Disorganization: failures of supervisory control: Norman & Sallice:
    • Norman & Sallice:
    • 2 systems for control of behavior
    • contention scheduling controls routine behavior
    • SAS controls non-routine behaviors
  18. Theories of Action Disorganization: failure of Supervisory Control: Shallice
    • Shallice:
    • behavior of frontal patients reflects the functioning of contention scheduling in the absence of the supervisory attention
  19. 3 types of memory
    sensory-short term - long term
  20. Sensory vs STM vs LTM (time)
    • 100-150 msec
    • few to several seconds
    • minutes to lifetime
  21. box model of memory
    sensory input->sensory memory (unattended info quickly lost)->attention->Working short term memory (maintenance rehearsal or info is lost if not rehearsed)->encoding ->Long-term memory (retrieval back to STM, or some info lost over time)
  22. Sperling Task
    rows of letters flashed, tone indicates which row to remember, subject reports cued line
  23. Full report vs partial report in sperling task
    • name as many items as you can remember
    • name only items that are cued
  24. full vs partial report findings
    • can remember more when line is cued.
    • flash had to be long enough
    • used iconic memory (visual) to have attention and then extract out info to report
    • attention in sensory memory allows it to move to working memory
  25. sensory memory is
    fleeting store of information
  26. if the tone in sperling task was instantaneous,
    report was almost perfect.
  27. Post-cue delay duration
    • as delay of signal increases, performance level decreases.
    • this tells us how fleeting sensory memory is
  28. Sensory Memory
    • Iconic ("picture")
    • Lasts 500 ms to 1 sec
    • Forms automatically without attention of interpretation
    • unconscious to the person
    • separate sensory-memory store for each sensory system
  29. Different sensory memory systems:
    • Vision (Iconic Memory : Visual info)
    • Hearing (Echoic Memory- Auditory info)
    • Touch
    • Smell
    • Taste
  30. Function of Sensory Memory
    • To retain all the sensory input long enough for:
    • analysis by unconscious mental processes
    • transfer to STM/Working memory via the "Attention" process
  31. Primary memory
    This moment in time (short term)
  32. Secondary Memory
    memory storehouse (long term)
  33. Short term memory distinctions
    • Active contents of consciousness
    • Active nodes in LTM
    • Fast access to contents
    • Limited capacity
  34. Long term memory distinctions
    • Not currently in consciousness
    • Inactive until cued
    • slower access
    • unliminted capacity
Card Set
Cognitive Neuroscience
Exam #2