Unit3GLY

  1. 1. Soil scientists distinguish soil from
    regolith on the basis of the soil’s

    a. chemical composition.

    b. ability to support plant life.

    c. depth below the surface.

    d. physical texture.
    b
  2. 2. The effects of chemical weathering would
    be most evident

    a. in polar regions.

    b. in deserts.

    c. in tropical climates.

    d. at high altitudes.
    c
  3. 3. The soil horizon consisting of the most
    intensively weathered rock material is the

    a. A horizon.

    b. B horizon.

    c. C horizon.

    d. R horizon.
    a
  4. 4. The soil horizon known as the zone of
    leaching is the

    a. A horizon.

    b. B horizon.

    c. C horizon.

    d. O horizon.
    a
  5. 5. A clay-rich soil may hold a great deal
    of water; however, such a soil may not necessarily be desirable in an
    agricultural setting because clay soils

    a. are nutrient-poor.

    b. are often slow to drain due to their low
    permeability.

    c. are often too acidic for most crops.

    d. release toxic heavy metals, which are
    incorporated into plant tissues.
    b
  6. 6. Pedalfer soils are

    a. typically alkaline.

    b. characteristic of humid climates.

    c. rich in calcium carbonate.

    d. common
    soils of the western and southwestern United States
    b
  7. 7. Lateritic soils

    a. contain a high percentage of soluble nutrients.

    b. are an extreme type of pedocal.

    c. are severely leached soils.

    d. are best developed in cool, dry regions.
    c
  8. 8. Histosols are

    a. soils of deserts and semiarid regions.

    b. bog-type soils.

    c. grassland soils.

    d. soils that contain expandable clay.
    b
  9. 9. In North America, the single greatest
    cause of soil degradation is from

    a. deforestation.

    b. overgrazing.

    c. industrialization.

    d. agricultural activities.
    d
  10. 10. The Dust Bowl of the 1930s resulted
    from

    a. clearing and/or close grazing of natural
    vegetation.

    b. sustained drought.

    c. poor farming practices.

    d. All of the above choices are correct.
    b
  11. 11. Dust storms have greatly increased
    worldwide over the past two centuries primarily because of

    a. worldwide drought.

    b. deforestation and increasing cultivation.

    c. increasing urbanization.

    d. intense winds.
    b
  12. 12. All of the following can be used to
    reduce wind erosion on farmland except

    a. planting hedges or trees along field borders.

    b. planting cover crops.

    c. leaving stubble in the fields.

    d. contour plowing.
    d
  13. 13. One of the disadvantages of terracing
    is

    a. increased surface runoff.

    b. decreased infiltration.

    c. leaching of soil nutrients.

    d. its cost.
    d
  14. 14. A method of reducing soil erosion in
    which the land is not plowed before or after planting but at the time of
    planting is called

    a. contour plowing.

    b. single-step tillage.

    c. minimum tillage.

    d. nonrotational farming.
    c
  15. 15. Which one of the following is an
    environmental cost associated with increased crop productivity?

    a. increased reliance on irrigation and the
    resultant increase in the “mining” of ground water

    b. increased use of pesticides and fertilizers

    c. a six-fold increase in energy use for
    agricultural activities since 1950

    d. All of the above are correct.
    d
  16. 1.
    Ninety-eight percent of the earth's crust is composed of only elements.

    a. 5

    b. 8

    c. 17

    d. 23
    b
  17. 2. Which of the following does not depend
    on our geologic understanding of magmatic mineral deposits?

    a. the discovery of additional
    mineral deposits

    b. the prediction of likely
    locations of future volcanic eruptions

    c. safer mining methods

    d. better quality control of the
    mined ore
    b
  18. 3. Of the following nonfuel minerals, the
    United States has significant reserves only of

    a. manganese.

    b. tin.

    c. molybdenum.

    d. nickel.
    c
  19. 4. Some pegmatites are mined for gemstones
    such as

    a. olivine.

    b. quartz.

    c. feldspar

    d. emerald.
    d
  20. 5. The metal-rich muds at the bottom of
    the Red Sea were most likely formed as a result of

    a. magmatic crystallization.

    b. hydrothermal activity.

    c. stream-deposited sediments.

    d. evaporation.
    b
  21. 6. Severe leaching of tropical lateritic
    soils has produced economically important ore deposits of

    a. iron.

    b. copper.

    c. tin.

    d. aluminum.
    d
  22. 7. The most heavily used metal is

    a. aluminum.

    b. copper.

    c. iron.

    d. tin.
    c
  23. 8. Halite, gypsum, and phosphate are examples
    of minerals recovered from

    a. evaporite deposits.

    b. placer deposits.

    c. hydrothermal ore deposits.

    d. magmatic deposits.
    a
  24. 9. Worldwide reserves for most metals are
    projected to last

    a. a few years.

    b. a few decades.

    c. a few centuries.

    d. about 1000 years.
    b
  25. 10. The marine mineral resource having the
    greatest potential for exploitation in the near future is

    a. seawater.

    b. manganese nodules.

    c. hydrothermal deposits at
    spreading ridges.

    d. marine placer deposits.
    b
  26. 1. Oil, natural gas, and coal are examples
    of

    a. fossil fuels.

    b. hydrocarbon fuel.

    c. nonrenewable resources.

    d. All
    of the above are correct.
    d
  27. 2. As societies evolve from primitive to
    technological, the energy consumption associated with agriculture

    a. increases.

    b. decreases.

    c. remains constant.

    d. may either increase or
    decrease depending upon what foods the individuals eat.
    a
  28. 3. As heat and pressure act upon
    petroleum, it finally becomes

    a. oil.

    b. tar.

    c. natural gas.

    d. coal.
    c
  29. 4. One barrel of oil is equal to how many
    gallons?

    a. 21

    b. 42

    c. 56

    d. 100
    b
  30. 5. The nation having the largest proven
    reserves of crude oil is

    a. the United States.

    b. Kuwait.

    c. Saudi Arabia.

    d. Algeria.
    c
  31. 6. Petroleum accounts for about percent of the energy used in the United
    States.

    a. 10

    b. 25

    c. 40

    d. 75
    c
  32. 7. Natural gas supplies about percent of the energy used in the United
    States.

    a. 5

    b. 11

    c. 15

    d. 25
    d
  33. 8. An oil well “gusher” would be an
    example of

    a. primary recovery.

    b. secondary recovery.

    c. forced recovery.

    d. enhanced recovery.
    a
  34. 9. Geopressurized zones might one day
    become an important source of

    a. petroleum.

    b. natural gas.

    c. lignite.

    d. kerogen
    b
  35. 10. The reservoir now believed to contain
    the largest amount of carbon is

    a. the atmosphere.

    b. natural gas.

    c. coal (bituminous and
    anthracite).

    d. gas
    hydrates.
    d
  36. 11. Which one of the following fuels would
    give off the most heat per given unit weight?

    a. peat

    b. lignite

    c. bituminous

    d. anthracite
    d
  37. 12. Coal subjected to overly high
    temperatures will metamorphose into

    a. graphite.

    b. oil shale.

    c. tar sand.

    d. peat.
    a
  38. 13. The largest recoverable U.S. energy
    reserve is

    a. petroleum.

    b. coal.

    c. natural
    gas.

    d. uranium oxide.
    b
  39. 14. The worst oil spill in United States
    waters was the

    a. Santa Barbara spill

    b. Amoco Cadiz spill

    c. Exxon Valdez spill

    d. Torrey Canyon spill
    c
  40. 15. Coal supplies about percent of the energy used in the United
    States.

    a. 10

    b. 25

    c. 50

    d. 80
    b
  41. 16. The substance found in coal that
    contributes to acid rainfall is

    a. carbon.

    b. sulfur.

    c. chlorine.

    d. nitrogen.
    b
  42. 17. The environmental disaster that has
    affected the town of Centralia, Pennsylvania was caused by

    a. toxic coal-ash residue.

    b. acid rainfall.

    c. an underground coal-mine
    fire.

    d. an oil spill.
    c
  43. 18. The United States has about two-thirds
    of the world’s known resources of

    a. tar sands.

    b. natural gas.

    c. coal.

    d. oil shale.
    d
  44. 19. The hydrocarbon fuel in oil shale is

    a. petroleum.

    b. kerogen.

    c. natural gas.

    d. methane.
    b
  45. 20. All of the following are problems in
    the development of oil shale in the U.S. as a viable energy resource except

    a. extraction and processing
    technologies are not competitive with those of conventional petroleum.

    b. environmental problems
    associated with the surface mining of oil shale.

    c. the problem of waste rock
    disposal.

    d. the low quality of the oil.
    d
  46. 1.
    The fissionable isotope of uranium used in most nuclear power reactors
    is

    a. uranium-238.


    b. uranium-236.

    c. uranium-235.

    d. uranium-237.
    c
  47. 2. In the United States, most uranium
    deposits are found in

    a. limestone.

    b. granite.

    c. sandstone.

    d. rhyolite.
    c
  48. 3. Breeder reactors constitute what
    percentage of nuclear power plants in the United States?

    a. 0

    b. 6

    c. 25

    d. 65
    a
  49. 4. The accident at the Three Mile Island
    nuclear plant was caused by

    a. an earthquake.

    b. partial loss of coolant.

    c. an explosion of the nuclear
    fuel.

    d. saboteurs.
    b
  50. 5. All of the following are reasons why no
    new nuclear power plants have been ordered since 1978 except

    a. nuclear plants have higher
    fueling and operating costs than coal-fired plants.

    b. nuclear plants are more
    costly to build than coal-fired plants.

    c. nuclear plants require a long
    time to plan, build, and license.

    d. increased concerns over nuclear
    reactor safety.
    a
  51. 6. A Chernobyl-style accident would be
    unlikely at a commercial nuclear plant in the United States because

    a. American nuclear plant
    operators are better trained than Soviet operators.

    b. American nuclear plants are
    not located near cities.

    c. American commercial reactors
    use a safer nuclear fuel than do Soviet nuclear plants.

    d. the design of American
    commercial nuclear reactors is different from that of the Chernobyl reactor.
    d
  52. 7. Optimistic projections state that
    nuclear fission will supply about how much of the total energy used in the
    United States by the year 2020?

    a. one-quarter

    b. one-third

    c. one-half

    d. three-quarters
    b
  53. 8. The fuel to be used by fusion reactors
    is

    a. water.

    b. helium.

    c. uranium-236.

    d. hydrogen.
    d
  54. 9. Which of the following is a
    technological problem that must be solved before fusion reactors become a
    reality?

    a. concentrating fuel nuclei at
    extremely high temperatures

    b. containment of fusing nuclei

    c. achieving sustained
    containment time to produce net energy output

    d. All of the above are correct.
    d
  55. 10. Which one of the following is not an
    advantage of solar energy?

    a. It is a widely dispersed
    resource.

    b. It is an inexhaustible
    resource.

    c. It is available at no cost.

    d. It is essentially
    pollution-free.
    a
  56. 11. Maximum insolation occurs over the United States.

    a. northeastern

    b. northwestern

    c. southeastern

    d. southwestern
    d
  57. 12. Currently, the best experimental
    solarcells have an efficiency of about percent.

    a. 20


    b. 30

    c. 50


    d. 65
    b
  58. 13. Which of the following is not an
    advantage of geothermal power?

    a. It is almost pollution-free.

    b. It is competitive
    economically with other methods of generating electricity.

    c. There are no ash,
    radioactive-waste, or carbon-dioxide problems.

    d. The useful life of a
    geothermal field is nearly endless.
    d
  59. 14. Hydroelectric power provides about percent of the total energy needs of the
    United States.

    a. 4

    b. 7

    c. 12

    d. 17
    a
  60. 15. Hydroelectric power

    a. is economically competitive
    with other methods of generating electricity.

    b. supplies about 6% of all
    energy consumed worldwide.

    c. does not pollute the water
    flowing through the generating equipment.

    d. All of the above are correct.
    d
  61. 16. A major limitation of hydroelectric
    power is that

    a. it
    is renewable only as long as the streams continue to flow.

    b. it
    is a significant consumer of water.

    c. it
    is limited to the stationary nature of streams.

    d. it
    diverts water from other users.
    c
  62. 17. Which region of the United States has
    the greatest potential for the development of large-scale windmill arrays?

    a. the
    Pacific Coast

    b. the
    Great Plains

    c. the
    Rocky Mountains

    d. the
    New England states
    b
  63. 18. In 1995, wind power accounted for what
    percentage of the electric generating capacity of the United States?

    a. about 3

    b. about 7

    c. 9

    d. 20
    a
  64. 19. The biomass energy source that provides
    about one-third of Hawaii’s electricity is

    a. wastes
    from pineapple processing plants.

    b. wastes
    from sugar-cane processing plants.

    c. fish
    oil.

    d. coconut
    fiber.
    b
  65. 20. The gaseous fuel obtained from sanitary
    landfills is

    a. hydrogen.

    b. carbon
    monoxide.

    c. methane.

    d. gasohol.
    c
  66. 1.
    The largest volume of toxic wastes is generated by

    a. agriculture.

    b. municipalities.

    c. industry.

    d. research
    laboratories.
    c
  67. 2. Which of the following materials makes
    up the largest percentage of municipal wastes?

    a. paper

    b. glass

    c. garden debris

    d. plastics
    a
  68. 3. A disadvantage in using old landfill
    sites for cropland or pastureland is

    a. the absence of many important
    micronutrients needed for proper plant growth.

    b. low soil pH conditions that
    result in poor plant growth.

    c. the development of highly
    porous soils that drain away water too rapidly.

    d. the possible incorporation of
    toxic chemicals into plant tissues.
    d
  69. 4. An advantage of incineration waste
    disposal is the

    a. reduction of waste volume.

    b. destruction of toxic chemical
    elements.

    c. dilution of harmful
    substances in the ash residue.

    d. release of carbon dioxide
    into the atmosphere.
    a
  70. 5. All of the following are methods of
    reducing waste volume except

    a. compaction.

    b. composting.

    c. recycling.

    d. ocean dumping.
    d
  71. 6. The number of hazardous-waste sites
    estimated to exist in the United States is about

    a. 2000.

    b. 5600.

    c. 17,000.

    d. 30,000.
    d
  72. 7. Superfund monies are intended to pay
    for

    a. recycling pilot projects.

    b. emergency cleanup of
    abandoned toxic waste sites.

    c. the relocation of persons
    living near hazardous toxic waste sites.

    d. research into the problem of
    disposing of toxic wastes.
    b
  73. 8. The required size of a septic system
    leaching field is determined by the number of persons served and by

    a. the volume of liquid waste
    generated.

    b. soil permeability.

    c. the depth to the water table.

    d. the rate of waste
    decomposition by soil organisms.
    b
  74. 9. Radioactive particles never release

    a. alpha particles.

    b. beta particles.

    c. cosmic rays.

    d. gamma rays.
    c
  75. 10. A sample of a certain radioisotope has
    a mass of 100 grams. If the radioisotope has a half-life of 10 years, how much
    of the original radioisotope would be present after 30 years?

    a. 50 grams

    b. 30 grams

    c. 25 grams

    d. 12.5 grams
    d
  76. 11. An example of a radioisotope that is
    also a toxic chemical poison is

    a. iodine-131.

    b. iron-59.

    c. plutonium-239.

    d. strontium-90.
    c
  77. 12. The radiation source responsible for
    the highest percentage of average radiation exposure for persons in the United
    States is

    a. nuclear power plants.

    b. cosmic rays.

    c. rocks and soil.

    d. medical X rays.
    d
  78. 13. All of the following are strategies for
    disposing of high-level radioactive wastes except

    a. disposal in sanitary
    landfills.

    b. space disposal.

    c. ice sheet disposal.

    d. seabed disposal.
    a
  79. 14. All of the following properties of the
    proposed Yucca Mountain (Nevada) high-level radioactive waste site contributed
    to its selection except

    a. tuff host rock.

    b. low population density.

    c. low regional water table.

    d. absence of faults.
    d
  80. 15. Worldwide, the number of permanent
    high-level radioactive waste disposal sites is

    a. 0.

    b. 6.

    c. 15.

    d. 32.
    a
  81. The B-horizon of a soil



    B)
  82. Calcium carbonate (calcite) is deposited in the B-horizon of a



    B)
  83. Weathering is most intense in the



    C)
  84. Which of the following is always involved in chemical weathering?



    A)
  85. Red color in soils results from



    A)
  86. Soil development (weathering) is slowest in



    C)
  87. Which is not a chemical weathering process?A)oxidation
    B)frost-shattering (-wedging)
    C)solution
    D)hydrolysis
    B
  88. The rate of chemical weathering is affected by



    D)
  89. Which of the following is removed by weathering from pedalfer soils but not from pedocal soils?



    B)
  90. The chemical weathering process called solution



    D)
  91. Laterite soils form in what climate?



    A)
  92. Chemical weathering is fastest in



    B)
  93. The C-horizon of a soil is



    B)
  94. The B-horizon of a humid-climate soil is red because



    C)
  95. Soil is a nonrenewable resource because we are losing it faster than it forms. How long did it take to form the soils in the glaciated upper Midwest?



    D)
  96. Soil erosion is worst from land in which type of use?A)forest
    B)grazing
    C)crops
    D)construction
    D
  97. Mechanical weathering



    A)
  98. Soil particle textural classes are



    A)
  99. Pedalfer soils are found in



    C)
  100. Laterite soils



    B)
  101. Lateritic soils are a problem for human use because they



    B)
  102. A well-drained soil is



    B)
  103. Most soil erosion prevention measures



    D)
  104. The USDA CRP approach to erosion control emphasizes



    A)
  105. Irrigation of pedocal soils can cause



    B)
  106. The bulk of our metallic mineral resources is associated with



    B)
  107. Hydrothermal deposits of ore minerals form



    A)
  108. Large feldspar crystals are abundant in what type of ore deposit?



    A)
  109. Why might certain metals be considered renewable resources while others are nonrenewable?



    A)
  110. Which has the greatest world reserves (supply for the future)?



    B)
  111. Aluminum ore deposits are



    C)
  112. A major type of non-metallic mineral deposit is



    D)
  113. In the U.S., recycling is an important source of what metal?



    D)
  114. Lateritic weathering produces which ore deposit?



    B)
  115. Hydrothermal deposits are predominantly composed of what type of ore minerals?



    B)
  116. Chromite forms



    A)
  117. Rock salt and rock gypsum are what kind of mineral deposit?



    A)
  118. Gold, diamonds, and tin oxide can occur as what kind of mineral deposit?



    C)
  119. Metamorphism of coal produces



    C)
  120. Banded iron formation is what kind of mineral deposit?



    D)
  121. Black smokers on the seafloor occur near



    D)
  122. Diamonds are found in



    C)
  123. Which mineral/rock resource is the most intensively used in the U.S.?



    C)
  124. Manganese nodules form



    A)
  125. Which ore deposit yields aluminum?



    D)
  126. Metallic mineral deposits that are worth mining are



    A)
  127. The concentration factor



    B)
  128. Aluminum is a widely used metal because it



    C)
  129. The most heavily used metal is



    D)
  130. Waste materials left from processing mineral deposits are called



    D)
  131. Which energy resource will last longest?



    C)
  132. Acid rain is caused primarily by



    A)
  133. Geologic maps provide an accurate estimate of future supplies of



    B)
  134. Atmospheric pollution is the worst when



    C)
  135. The greatest cost of coal strip-mining is



    C)
  136. Coal mining spoils are a potential source of what type of groundwater contaminant?



    C)
  137. Which is a fossil fuel?



    C)
  138. Which is a fossil fuel?



    D)
  139. Within which country are the largest proven reserves of natural gas located?



    C)
  140. Which source could yield large amounts of natural gas in the future?



    C)
  141. Which is the highest grade and most carbon-rich coal?



    A)
  142. The Exxon Valdez spilled



    D)
  143. Which produces the most carbon dioxide when it is burned?



    B)
  144. Fossil fuels include all of these except



    A)
  145. Commercially, the most valuable petroleum reservoirs (like aquifers) are



    B)
  146. Oil and gas migrate out of their source rocks and



    B)
  147. Fossil fuels are found in



    A)
  148. The 20 billion barrels of oil in Alaska's North Slope deposits would supply the United States for about



    D)
  149. Using both primary and secondary petroleum recovery techniques, what proportion of the oil in an oil field is usually pumped out?



    B)
  150. Geopressurized natural gas may be deep underground in



    B)
  151. New enhanced oil recovery methods can extract more oil from a reservoir



    A)
  152. Coal forms from



    C)
  153. Gasification and liquefaction techniques



    D)
  154. Oil spill clean-up experiments after the Exxon Valdez spill that were the most encouraging involved



    A)
  155. Oil shale is currently extracted by



    B)
  156. The major drawback to fusion power is



    B)
  157. An important reason that the U.S. is not generating much energy from nuclear fission is



    C)
  158. Which of the following alternative energy sources has the greatest potential for becoming a large-scale energy supply in the future?



    A)
  159. High-level nuclear waste that is now in temporary storage in the U.S. has been produced by



    C)
  160. Breeder reactors would provide a renewable supply of fuel for



    C)
  161. Which energy resource utilizes the Earth's internal heat?



    D)
  162. The amount of energy potentially available from hydroelectric power is limited primarily by



    D)
  163. Waste disposal is a problem with which energy resource?



    A)
  164. The main reason we presently do not utilize more solar energy in the U.S. is that



    A)
  165. Geothermal heat is a good energy source but



    A)
  166. Most gasohol blends are from



    A)
  167. Expanded use of which energy resource would contribute least to global warming?



    A)
  168. Which energy resource is renewable?



    D)
  169. Which is not in the top three sources of world energy production?



    B)
  170. Twenty miles per gallon is the average fuel consumption of a



    A)
  171. In the U.S., the bulk of uranium deposits are found in



    D)
  172. A breeder reactor makes more of this fuel than it consumes.



    B)
  173. Where are the greatest wind resources available in the U.S.?



    B)
  174. Why do many environmentalist groups oppose hydropower development?



    C)
  175. At Yellowstone National Park, one sees evidence of which energy resource?



    B)
  176. Where are the solar energy resources available in the U.S.?



    C)
  177. Which country relies most heavily upon nuclear power for its energy?



    B)
  178. A fission nuclear reactor core meltdown



    C)
  179. Currently, the greatest use of solar energy is for



    D)
  180. Ocean thermal energy conversion is limited most by easy access to near-shore



    D)
  181. Granite could provide a suitable site for disposal of high-level nuclear waste because it has



    A)
  182. Most municipal solid waste is disposed



    C)
  183. The greatest environmental hazard presented by sanitary landfills is



    A)
  184. Mine waste can be a source of what type of pollution?



    B)
  185. Solid waste that accumulates in reservoirs above dams comes largely from



    D)
  186. The best location for a sanitary landfill is



    A)
  187. Monitoring wells around a sanitary landfill are used to determine



    D)
  188. How does the United States plan to dispose of its high-level nuclear waste?



    A)
  189. What is the problem with using sludge from sewage treatment as a fertilizer?



    C)
  190. The majority of municipal sewage in the U.S.



    D)
  191. Which is utilized for deep-well disposal of liquid wastes?



    B)
  192. A secure landfill is used for disposal of



    C)
  193. The rock at the proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada high-level radioactive waste disposal site is



    A)
  194. One advantage of the Yucca Mountain site is that it would be in an area



    D)
  195. How much of a radioisotope will remain after three of its half-lives have passed?



    A)
  196. Plutonium-239 is a very hazardous radionuclide because it is



    D)
  197. Iodine-131 is a very hazardous radionuclide because it



    A)
  198. The high-level nuclear waste repository of the U.S. must isolate waste so that fewer than 1,000 deaths are caused by the waste over how many years?



    C)
  199. Over 90% of the radioactive waste in the U.S. is



    B)
  200. How do most countries in the world deal with high-level radioactive wastes?



    A)
  201. The U.S. government created Superfund to deal with



    A)
  202. Love Canal was a disposal site for



    B)
  203. Sanitary landfills are used for disposal of



    C)
  204. Incinerators are used for disposal of



    C)
  205. Leachate is most often produced in a



    D)
Author
hydeab
ID
76356
Card Set
Unit3GLY
Description
GeologyUnit 3
Updated