PSYC 270 Exam 2, Part 2

  1. 3 necessary conditions for causation
    • A precedes B
    • A and B must covary (B must occur when A does)
    • A must be the most plausible cause for B with other potential causes ruled out
  2. Why conduct a non-experimental study?
    Some variables cannot be experimentally manipulated (ex: gender, love/hate); Some processes take too long to study experimentally; CAN be used as a means of suggesting, clarifying, refining, or extending experimental research findings
  3. It is not possible to make determinations of causation with a correlational study because of _______ and ______
    third variable problem; directionality problem
  4. This is the correlation between X and Y, with Z held constant
    partial correlation
  5. a variable that accounts for the relationship between 2 other variables
    mediator variable
  6. variable that specifies when effects will hold
    moderator variable
  7. Comparisons of two or more groups that are differentiated on a preexisting variable/grouping; the variable is measured, not manipulated
    quasi-experimental research
  8. examples of quasi-experimental research
    • Sex differences in abilities
    • Differences among psychiatric populations
    • Different cognitive skills of children in various age groups
    • Change in attitude towards research methods before and after the course
  9. Measuring attributes over time can also be ________ IF there is not a random assignment to conditions OR a control group for comparison
  10. Quasi-Experimental research may be subject to
    selection bias
  11. weakness of non-experimental study
    inability to establish causation
  12. Pros of correlational research
    Allows us to study the relationship between two or more variables; quantifies the strength of the relationship between two or more variables; it can be used to predict values for one variable from values for other variables (regression analysis)
  13. Magnitude and Sign of r
    • Small: |r| = .20-.29
    • Medium: |r| = .30-.49
    • Large: |r| = .50-1.0
  14. simultaneously analyzing multiple variables
    multivariate analysis
  15. in regression analysis, the _____ is the known variable; The ______ is the predicted variable
    predictor; criterion
  16. Regression analysis can be extended to ________ (using several predictors for one criterion)
    multiple regression
  17. Quasi-experiments may look a lot like an experiment, but it lacks ___________
    random assignment
  18. In quasi-experiments we use a non-manipulated independent variable, or...
    classification variable
  19. a research design where patterns of scores over time are compared before a treatment is implemented and after a treatment is implemented
    time series design
  20. If I measure your attitudes about research methods before we begin the class, and then again after class,
    then the change in attitude (better or worse) could be because of the class or some other events that occurred during the between the tests
    pretest-posttest design
  21. during time series design, treatment is an independent event that researchers have no control over
    interruped time series design
  22. during time series design, treatment is implemented by the
    researcher (i.e., examining a new therapy technique).
    non-interruped time series design
  23. advantages to single-subject designs:
    ability to focus on individual performance; don't leave individuals untreated in control groups; allow flexibility in design
  24. major disadvantages to single-subject designs
    some effects are small and can't really be seen in one subject; sometimes you can't try out different variables on the same subject and you must use between-subject designs.
  25. commonly used single-subject designs
    Time Series; Interrupted Time Series; Multiple Time Series; “AB” Designs
  26. a statistical technique that allows you to combine effect sizes or significance testings from many different studies
  27. Committee that reviews proposals of intended research and evaluates if the research is ethical and if the rights of the participants are being protected
    Institutional Review Board (IRB)
  28. written or verbal acknowledgment that subjects know
    what they are getting into and that they have these rights
    informed consent
  29. by commission, when a research deliberately misleads the participant (provides false information, or uses a confederate)
    active deception
  30. by omission, when a researcher withholds information about the nature of a study from the participants (not fully
    explaining the purpose of the study when it starts)
    passive deception
  31. describing the nature of the research after participation
  32. a strategy for selecting study participants in which each and every person has an equal and independent chance of being selected
    random sampling
  33. the most straightforward of the random sampling strategies. We use this strategy when we believe that the population is relatively homogeneous for the characteristic of interest
    simple random sampling
  34. take every nth person from the sampling frame; not a random sampling strategy
    systematic sampling
  35. treats the population as though it were two or more separate populations and then randomly samples within each
    stratified random sampling
  36. begin by stratifying the population into relevant subgroups and then random sampling within each subgroup. The number of participants that we recruit from each subgroup is equal to their proportion in the population.
    proportionate sampling
  37. useful when it would be impossible or impractical to identify every person in the sample; ex: Rather than randomly sample 10% of students from each class, which would be a difficult task, randomly sampling every student in 10% of the classes would be easier
    cluster sampling
  38. Ex: To obtain a representative national sample, researchers may select zip codes at random from each state. Within these zip codes, streets are randomly selected. Within each street, addresses are randomly selected
    multistage sampling
  39. uses a "man-on-the-street" technique to recruit those who wander by or selects a sampling frame that does not accurately reflect the population
    haphazard sampling
  40. targets a particular group of people
    purposive sampling
  41. selects a particular group of people but it does not come close to sampling all of a population
    convenience sampling
  42. A key aspect of experiments that allows test of causal relationships is the manipulation of the ________
    independent variable
  43. Another key feature of experiments is the control of factors that could affect the results but are not part of the independent variable(s) manipulated. These extraneous factors are called _________
    confounding variables
  44. If confounding variables are not ______, the causal relationship between the independent and dependent variables will be unclear
  45. If an EV affects the groups in an experiment differentially, we do not know whether the IV or EV is resulting in the differences in the DV. In this case, we say that the results of the experiment are:
  46. an error in data collection based on poor measuring
    instruments or human error
    measurement error
  47. Extent to which items on a test, inventory, questionnaire, adequately measure the construct they are supposed to measure
    content validity
  48. degree to which a test or other measure assesses the underlying theoretical construct it is supposed to
    construct validity
  49. Two major types of validity
    test and experimental
  50. Extent to which a measure correlates with other indicators of a construct
    convergent validity
  51. Extent to which a measure does not correlate with other measures that do not measure the construct of interest
    discriminant validity
  52. Are the statistical tests accurate and appropriate? The degree to which conclusions reached about relationships between variables are justified
    [statistical] conclusion validity
  53. Do the results apply to the broader population of people and situations? Generalization.
    external validity
  54. Was the independent variable the sole cause of the change in the dependent variable? Have we ruled out all possible sources of confounding?
    internal validity
  55. incorrectly rejecting null hypothesis
    type I error
  56. incorrectly failing to reject the null hypothesis
    type II error
  57. The tendency by participants to act differently than normal because they know they are being studied
    Hawthorne effect
  58. The tendency by participants to respond to what they think the experimenter wants (or demands) from them
    demand characteristics
  59. The tendency to feel inadequate or to experience unease when being observed
    evaluation apprehension
  60. Treatment effects that are due to participants’ expectations that the treatment will work
    placebo effects
  61. Any factor that creates groups that are not equal at the start of the study; threat to validity
  62. Changes due to normal growth or predictable changes; threat to validity
  63. Loss of participants during a study. The participants who drop out may be different from those who continue; threat to validity
  64. Changes due to an event that occurs during the study, which might have affected the results; threat to validity
  65. Changes in participants’ behavior in one condition because of information they obtained about the procedures in other conditions; threat to validity
    diffusion of treatment
  66. Any change in the calibration of the measuring instrument (especially human measuring instruments) over the course of the study; threat to validity
  67. Effects on performance in one condition due to experience with previous conditions; These are
    of concern whenever a participant is tested more than once under different conditions; threat to validity
    order of sequence effects
  68. Changes due to the effects of previous testing; threat to validity
  69. Participants selected because of extreme scores will on average be less extreme on a retest; very common in psyc research; threat to validity
    regression to the mean/statistical regression
  70. Any preconceived idea by the researcher about how the experiment should turn out can influence the results. (not deliberate – e.g. scientific fraud)
    experimenter bias
  71. both the participant and the experimenter are unaware of the condition the participant is assigned to
  72. about assignment to the condition
    random assignment
  73. randomly select individuals from the population for your study
    random selection
  74. One way to control extraneous factors is through ______ to the various levels of the IVs
    Random assignment
  75. Two or more independent variables makes it a ______
    factorial design
  76. Why is random assignment used?
    To equate the differences we might see among individuals; to control extraneous factors
  77. The most effective way to minimize many of the threats to validity is to have a _______ and ________
    control group; random assignment
  78. Way to minimize observer effect (experimenter bias):
    use a blind procedure
  79. Ways to minimize participant effects (Hawthorne, demand characteristics, evaluation app, placebo):
    Observe participants unobtrusively, make responses anonymous, us deception, ask participants abt their perceptions of the purpose of the exp
  80. Way to minimize diffusion of treatment threat:
    blind procedure, use of deception
  81. Way to minimize selection threat:
    random selection & random assignment
  82. Ways to minimize history and maturation threat:
    Use of a control group, possibly shorter duration of experiment
  83. Ways to minimize testing, order effects:
    using research design without a pre-test; use of unobtrusive measures; counterbalancing; using different equivalent pre-test/post-test
  84. Way to minimize instrumentation threat:
    careful specification and control of the measurement procedures; standardized instruments;
  85. Ways to minimize statistical regression threat:
    use of control group; avoid use of extreme scorers
  86. Ways to minimize attrition threat:
    Use of a large group, or follow-up with a portion of those who leave study
  87. test the individual under only one treatment or research condition (sometimes referred to as independent groups)
    between-subjects design
  88. test the same person under two or more research conditions (sometimes referred to as repeated measures)
    within-subjects design
  89. test used when comparing 2 means
    • between: t test
    • within: repeated measures t test
  90. test used when comparing more than 2 means
    • between: one-way ANOVA
    • within: repeated measures ANOVA
  91. test used when comparing more than 4 means across at least 2 factors
    mixed: factorial ANOVA
Card Set
PSYC 270 Exam 2, Part 2
research methods