Physiology Lecture testI

  1. An element with an atomic number of 10 would be able to form how many bonds?
    zero bonds
  2. If an atom or molecule loses one electron, it becomes
    If an atom or molecule loses one electron, it becomes a cation.
  3. A molecule that tends to form hydration spheres around it is said to be
  4. If the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution is 10^-8 molar, the solution has a pH of
  5. One molecule which is like a mirror image of another, having a key functional group oriented in a different direction, is called __________ of the other.
    a stereoisomer
  6. Which of the following organic molecules is not commonly found in the cell membrane?

    D. nucleic acids.
  7. The_________ are structures that greatly increase the surface area of cell membranes and thereby promote the rapid diffusion of molecules.

    D. microvilli
  8. Translation is best defined as the synthesis of__________?
    Translation is best defined as the synthesis of specific proteins from the mRNA base sequence code.
  9. The phase of the cell cycle during which DNA replicates itself is known as ________
    The S phase is the phase of the cell cycle during which DNA replicates itself.
  10. True or False: In the human body, cilia are found along the apical surface of epithelial cells of the respiratory and reproductive tracts.
  11. True or False: Smooth endoplasmic reticulum would be abundant in cells that are active in protein synthesis and secretion, such as those of many exocrine and endocrine glands.
  12. True or false: A stack of flattened sacs that recieve, modify, and repackage proteins into new vesicles best describes the endoplasmic reticulum of the cell.
  13. True or false: Apotosis refers to a type of cell death in which the cell swells, ruptures its membranes, and bursts.
  14. True or false: In Anaphase of mitosis, the chromosomes line up in single file along the equator of the cell.
  15. The organelle that stores calcium(Ca^2+) is striated muscle cells and is involved in steroid hormone metabolism is the___________________
    Endoplasmic reticulum.
  16. Introns and exons are found within
  17. Within mammalian cells, the "universal energy carrier" is?
    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
  18. What best describes the role of oxidizing agents in oxidation-reduction reactions?
    Oxidizing agents accept electrons.
  19. True or false: One reason enzymes are so effective is that each enzyme can catalyze a broad range of metabolic reaction.
  20. True or false: For most metabolic pathways a single enzyme catalyzes all the reactions.
  21. True or false: An intermediate in a metabolic pathway may serve as the substrate for two or more different enzymes that catalyze reactions leading in different directions.
  22. True or false: Some metabolic end-products can deactiviate or inhibit the very enzymes that are responsible for their production.
  23. True or false: A cell must maintain a state of high entropy to stay alive.
  24. When carbonic anhydrase and carbonic acid are temporarily joined together, they form_____.
    an enzyme-substrate complex.
  25. Which of the following is not a category of enzymes?

    E. All of the above are categories of enzymes.
  26. Which of the following represents the reduced form of a coenzyme?

    B. FADH2
  27. true or false: It is possible for the same molecule to serve as both an oxidizing agent and a reducing agent by alternating between the oxidized and reduced forms.
  28. Which of the following about glycolysis is false?
    a. It results in the formation of two molecules of pyruvic acid.
    b. It results in the net gain of four ATP molecules.
    c. It can occur with or without oxygen.
    d. It is an exergonic reaction.
    glycolysis does not result in the net gain of four ATP molecules. Thus, the answer is B.
  29. Which of the following tissues can survive longest in the absence of adequate oxygen(anaerobic conditions) by deriving energy from the anaerobic metabolism of glucose molecules?

    C. skeletal muscle
  30. Which is not a source of energy found circulating blood?

    C. glycogen is not a source of energy found circulating blood.
  31. In adfdition to energy(ATP), what is (are) the final product(s) of aerobic respiration?
    CO2 and H2O
  32. Starting with acetyl CoA, each turn of the Kreb's cycle will produce..
    1 FADH2, 1 ATP, and 3 NADH
  33. True of false: Damage to the mitochondria of a cell would inhibit glycolysis.
  34. True or false: Tissue cells that are anaerboic would have to burn relatively more glucose molecules to maintain a steady supply of ATP that would those tissues that are supplied with oxygen.
  35. In the cell's respiration of glucose forming two molecules of pyruvic acid, four atoms of ____ are removed.
  36. The organ mnost responsible for extracting and converting lactic acid to pyruvic acid, and which ultimately reforms and releases free glucose via the Cori cycle into the blood is the_____________
  37. Which of the following processes does not occur as an acetic acid subunit enters the mitochondrion and progresses around one complete circuit of the Kreb's cycle?
    a. One GTP molecule is converted to one ATP molecule.
    b. Three NAD molecules are reduced by the addition of electrons.
    c. one molecule of oxygen is combined with carbon to form carbon dioxide.
    d. one molecule of FAD is reduced by the addition of high energy electrons.
    it is answer C. One molecule of oxygen is not combined with carbon to form carbon dioxide.
  38. When one FADH2 enters oxidative phosphorylation, how many ATP are produced in the cytosol?
  39. True or false: The liver can supply the skeletal muscles with energy in the form of free glucose but the skeletal muscles cannot supply the liver with energy in the form of free glucose.
  40. True or false: The epidermis of the skin is keratinized or cornified stratified squamous epithelium.
  41. The organ system of the body that functions in the secretion of regulatory molecules called hormones is the________system.
    Endocrine System.
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Physiology Lecture testI
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