Biology Exam 2

  1. What was Edwin Hubble's contribution to science?
    He discovered that the universe was expanding/shifting evenly in all directions.
  2. Define: Singularity
    a small condensed ball of matter
  3. Define: Alchemy
    chemistry w/ magic
  4. What were the 4 elements according to alchemy?
    Earth, Wind, Air, Fire
  5. What were the 3 goals of alchemy?
    • 1) Turn lead to gold
    • 2) A universal solvent liquid
    • 3) Fountain of youth
  6. What is chemistry?
    Study of matter & energy
  7. Explain: Atomic Theory
    all matter consists of atom
  8. _________ is to chemistry as _________ is to biology
    Atomic Theory....Evolution
  9. Who said "all matter consists of atoms"
    Richard Feynman
  10. What was John's Dalton's contribution to science?
    @ the age of ten he hypothesized that everything was made of smaller things
  11. What was Ernest Rutherford contribution to science?
    He identified the components inside of atoms
  12. When was the 1st atom seen
  13. What determines an atoms atomic number?
    number of proteins
  14. What determines an atoms atomic mass/weight ?
    protons + nuetrons
  15. Protons give _______ while electrons give ________
  16. What was Dmitri Mendeleev contribution to science?
    Created a table that arranged elements according to their atomic number. This is known as the Periodic Table
  17. How is the Periodic Table arranged
    • Horizontal rows or periods are arragned by atomic number
    • Vertical rows or groups are arranged by similar chemical properties
  18. How many protons are i hydrogen? What about gold?
  19. The "Atomic Lego Set" contains about ____ naturally occurring elements
  20. What are the major chemicals of life and %?
    Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen (CHON) 96%
  21. How is body weight distributed according to the 4 major chemicals of life?
    • O=65%
    • C=18.5%
    • H=9.5%
    • N=3.3%
  22. Define: Quonta
    The release of energy by electrons
  23. How many grams = 1 lb
    454 grams
  24. What is organic chemistry?
    The study of Carbon
  25. What is important to know about carbon compounds?
    There are more compounds that contain carbon that those that do not.
  26. What is a covalent bond?
    a bond were electrons are shared amongst element/nutrients
  27. Describe 3 facts about carbons?
    • 1) backbone of many molecules/macromolecules
    • 2) humans weight is 2/3 carbon when dehydrated
    • 3) average human consumes about 300g of carbon daily
  28. Describe the Carboniferous Age(359-299 mya)
    There was a huge surplus of plants growing and eventually all of the carbondioxide was used up. This caused many plants to die. Millions of years later these plants turned to coal.
  29. What is an Ion?
    an atom that has lost or gained charge
  30. Why are Ions important?
    without ions our bodies would aquire several difficiencies.
  31. What nutrients help prevent osteoperesis?
    Calcium and Vitamin D
  32. What is considered "the cradle of life" and what are its important factors?
    • 1) water is the only common liquid on earth
    • 2) covers about 3/4 of the earth
    • 3) 70% of cell weight
  33. What would happened if all water vapor was emptied from the earths atmoshere?
    The whole earth would be covered by one inch of water
  34. What are the key properties of water and their importance?
    • a) high specific heat
    • b) high heat of vaporation
    • c) universal solvent
    • d) unusual density... max density at 4 degree celcius
  35. What is a water a crystalline lattice?
  36. What is the role of O ?
    Diatomic molecule (2 oxygens) that covalently bond together that oxydizes food to release energy
  37. What is cyanobacteria? Why is it important?
    cyanbacteria is a bluegreen algae or pondscum that is responsible for the first photosynthesis. Belongs to the archaebacteria phylum (2.8 bya) and is a very independent organism.
  38. What % of the earth's volume is oxygen?
  39. Why does ice float?
    Ice is about 91% as dense as it floats
  40. What is Carbon Dioxides atmospheric concentration?
    .04 or .0387
  41. What are the sources of CO ?
    volcanic activity, cow farts/methane gas, burning fossil fuels
  42. Define: Biological Macro Molecules
    carbon containing biomolecules containing many many many atoms
  43. what are the two general characteristics of biological macromolecules?
    • 1) elaborately organized
    • 2) only 4 general types
  44. Identify the 4 biological macro molecule types
    • nucleic acids
    • carbohydrates
    • lipids
    • proteins
  45. what are in nucleic acids?
    RNA & DNA
  46. What is the ratio of carbon hydrogen and oxygen in carbohydrates?
    • 1-2-1
    • 1 carbon 2 hydrogen 1 oxygen
  47. What are the functions of carbohydrates?
    • 1) major source of energy; especially C-H bonds
    • 2) supplies atoms for synthesis of other biochemical molecules
  48. describe and identify some monosaccharides.....


    monosaccharides are single saccharide SUGARS fructose, galactose, glucose

    disaccharides are dual/double sugars saccharide carbs SUCROSE ex. maltose, lactose

    polysaccharidesare STARCH & GLYCOGEN
  49. what is chitin?

    phenotypic cure: example
    fungus that contains nitrogen

    a cure that treats symptoms only---lactaid for those whom are lactose intollerant
  50. what is cellulose and why is it important?
    cellulose is basically a plants cell wall. it is important because alot of our resources are cellulose like wood "it is the most organic chemical on the planet"
  51. What is the empirical formula...aka isomer
    C-6 H-12 O-6
  52. what are the stats on your children if you are lactose tolerant
    then your children have a 4-10% increased chance of also being tolerant of lactose
  53. What are lipids and what are the made of?

    what do they do?
    lipids are fats and are composed with CHO but less O. they are a component of membrane and are the best chemical storage for energy
  54. identify the 4 different types of fats
    • 1 glycerol
    • 3 triglycerides
    • saturated
    • unsaturated
    • polyunsaturated
  55. whats the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?
    • saturated fats typically means that there are alot of bonds of hydrogen and carbon therefore it is generally oily....
    • unsaturated fats are solids
  56. What is a bomb calorimeter?
    an instrument used to measure energy in food?
  57. What are essential fats and what are some examples?
    • essential fats are fats that we do not contain as humans and must get them from eating products that contain them
    • omega 3 and omega 6
  58. Identify the good and the bad cholesterol?

    What % of adults are overweight?......obese?
    • low density lipo proteins (LDL) are bad cholesterol that block your arteries
    • high density lipo proteins (HDL) are the good cholesterols that are broken down in your liver

  59. What elements do proteins contain?
    how many types of proteins are there in the mammilian cell?
    CHO N S

  60. What foods are high in proteins?

    What are the major functions of proteins
    chicken, fish, peanuts, beef

    Structural component, enzymes, muscle contracting (myasin actin)
  61. What are the building blocks of proteins?

    how many are theoretically possible? how many are in all living organisms?
    Amino Acids

  62. What is amine group formula

    variable part formula

    Acid group.

    Which formula is organic

    H-C- -


    acid group
  63. all biological proteins consist of a combination of _____ amino acids
  64. where are amino acids assembled into proteins
  65. sequencing of amino acids is critical because?
  66. proteins are a physical expression of _____
  67. what is physics?

    the study of motion

    study of reaction (making and breaking bonds)
  68. what was the hazenburg catastrophe?
    hot air balloon explodes because it is full of hydrogen... only 37 people died
  69. what are the 5 reaction tendencies?
    • electrons like to be in pairs
    • no net charge
    • octet rule or full outer shell
    • number of atoms must balance
    • all reactions are reversible
  70. energy is a major ____ required by all life
  71. define: exergonic
    define endergonic
    • energy releasing bond (AB--> A+B+energy)
    • energy required (A+B+energy--> AB)
  72. what are the functions of enzymes (3)?

    • biological catalyst- increase chemical rates
    • 3d shape proteins and there names end in ase
    • decrease activation energy

    one molecule of carbonic anhydrase can convert 600,000 water and carbon dioxide into dihydrogen carbontrioxide in a second

    DNA Codes for a bunch of enzymes
  73. define energy

    the capacity to do work

    the transfer of energy
  74. what is high grade energy example?

    low grade energy ex?
    light, electricity, chemical, mechanical (highly organized)

    heat (poorly organized) heat molecules move randomly....
  75. define: potential energy

    kinetic energy
    energy at rest

    energy in action
  76. what is the first law of thermodynamics?

    whats an energy budget?
    energy conservation- energy is neither created or deformed; only changed in its type

    a diet
  77. what is the second law of thermodynamics?

    main idea?
    energy transfer- transforming of high grade energy into low grade energy is not 100% efficient

    ex = high grade energy 1--> high grade energy 2 + heat

    energy does not decrease in quantity but rather in quality
  78. define entropy
    a measure of disorder
  79. the second law of thermodynamics prevents what?

    what does this mean?
    perpetual motion- motion that continues indefinitely without any external source of energy; impossible in practice because of friction
  80. what does E=MC^2 mean?
    energy = mass x speed of light

    • mass and energy are two forms of the same thing (energy is liberated matter)
    • energy is held inside the nucleus of atoms
  81. photosynthesis is basically what?

    what is the equation of photosynthesis
    building with light

    (6 carbon dioxide + 6 Water )--Chlorophyll & light--> {C6H12O6+6 dioxygens} {glucose and oxygen}
  82. why are wavelengths important in photosynthesis?
    99% of light is wavelengths --spectrum
  83. what are the 4 characteristics of photosynthesis?
    • 1) occurs in autotrophs and chlorophyl
    • 2) happens in the chloroplast
    • 3) synthetic: endergonic reaction
    • 4) driven by lights (red&blue) not heat waves
  84. describe the photosynthesis process?


    efficiency? max?
    light is captured by chorophyll, moves to electrons to higher orbit, electron energy used to produce carbon hydrogen bonds in molecules like glucose

    sets limit on available energy

    about .1% aquatic marine, 1% land plants (maximum is 10-15%)
  85. sun is the source of all fuel...except?

    how many products does a forest provide?
    nuclear and geothermal

  86. most organisms do not feed on sunlight.... this means that they are????
    heterotrophs- feeds on others
  87. what is ATPstand for?

    what is its function
    Adenosine Triphosphate- provides energy for cells to do work

    ex nerve impulse, contraction of muscles, production of hormones
  88. describe the ADP-ATP cycle
    adenosine di phosphate are uncharged so they go through cellular respiration to obtain oxygen and glucose. once charged with these nutrients it is considered ATP. ATP returns to ADP when biological work is done
  89. what is the efficiency of reverse photosynthesis (36 ADP---> 36 ATP)
  90. oxidation of glucose is important because what?
    oxygen is added to C to make carbon dioxide and all hydrogen becomes water; this is done to maintain ph levels and prevent overheating
  91. what are the 3 major biochemical pathways and where do they occur?
    glycolysis, krebs cycle, electron transport system (all occurs in the mitochondria)
  92. what chemicals are oxidized by metabolism
    carbs, fats, amino acids
  93. how long are carbs stored in the body?

    what is the normal humans glucose levels?
    stored as glycogen for 24 hours

    90-100mg (glucose)/100 ml blood
  94. who was Fred Sanger and what was his contribution to science?
    he was the scientist who identified the hormone insulin found in the pancreas which is produced by the langerhans .
  95. what are the problems with carbohydrate metabolism?

    what are the measurements of these problems?
    • hyperglycemia- 2 much sugar in blood recorded after 8 hours
    • hypoglycemia- not enough sugar in blood level measured after 8 hours

    • hyper- 100-125= pre diabetic 125+ diabetic
    • hypo- below 90
  96. at what temperature does paper combust into flames
    450 degrees Fahrenheit
  97. what is epidemiology?

    how many amputations are there a week?
    how many of these are due to diabetes?
    epidemiology is the study of the spread and intensity of a disease

    3500; 1/2 are diabetic amputees
  98. what are the 3 types of diabetes?

    what are the stats of type II diabetes?

    what are the projections of diabetes over the years to come?
    • Type I -juvenile or genetic diabetes
    • Type II- acquired diabetes caused by bad lifestyles
    • Type III- induced by pregnancy (gestational)

    80-90% of diabetes in the US are a result of acquired diabetes....bad lifestyles

    1/3 of children will be pre-diabetic by age 20
  99. what are the 3 energy processes supporting life on earth
    nuclear fusion-electromagnetic wave lengths transmit energy

    photosynthesis transforms this energy through chlorophyl

    cellular respiration- both plants and animals do this
  100. define physiology and identify the 3 concepts of physiology?
    the study of function at any level of organization

    • 1) relationships exists between form and function
    • 2) physiology systems are both explained and constrained by mechanisms (role of mechanisms)
    • 3) homeostasis-internal states remain relatively constant i.e balance
  101. who is walter cannon and what was his contribution to science?

    who is claude bernard?
    expanded homeostasis-came up with the concept that despite the drastic changes that occur outside the body, internal states generally remain the same.... this was illustrated through concept that a running human produces enough heat to change the shape of proteins and release enough lactic acid that would kill us bet we are constantly adjusting to keep balance state on the inside this is known as homeostasis

    first to come up with the concept of homeostasis
  102. physiological (organ) systems are ________, ______ and maintain __________. these promote _______, _______, and ________
    multi-functional, interrelated, and maintain homeostasis.

    these promote: survival, growth, and reproduction
  103. what is a feedback loop?

    describe and explain the two types
    a system were output or product of a process influence future output

    • positive feedback: always increasing until infinity or is all gone..... cancer cell production, oxytocin-stretch hormone for uterus
    • negative feedback: has a sensor integrator that regulates its output. stays around a constant level
  104. define adaptation?

    each organ system has an _______ and a _________
    adjustments for survival

    form anatomy and function psychology
  105. describe the digestive system?

    what is mirobiota?
    also known as the gastrointestinal tract/ gi tract and is used to digest, assimilate and excrete food in/from the body

    small living bacteria that help breakdown toxins in body assists immune system
  106. describe the immune system

    what are the major organisms of the immune system and what do they do?
    the immune system is the body's defense. it has three layers of defense skin, non specific (major histocompability complex) and immune system

    • macrophage: detects virus (also related to monocytes)
    • helper T cells: notifies the T and B cells
    • T Cells: punctures holes inside of the invader and kills it
    • B cell: makes antibodies
    • memory cells- remembers the virus and speeds up kill time on the next invasion
  107. what is the max average heart rate equation?
    220 - age=maximum heart rate
  108. describe the nervous system
    major components?
    basic unit
    does a lot of crap.... sends messages throughout the body to tell em what to do-do :) (love u baby thanks for helping)

    • CNS= central nervous system (brain and spinal cord)
    • Peripheral nervous system= everything else

  109. what is the impulse direction of a neuron?

    what is a synapse

    what is the role of neurotransmitters
    dendrites--> axon terminals

    space between axon and dendrite

    transmits dozens of neurons to the rest of the body...
  110. what is the average heart rate of a human?

    dr. B's heart rate at home?

    in class teaching?

    how many people die from a heart attack annually (estimate)



    just under 1 million 900,000
  111. describe the endocrine system and major component(s)?

    how many miles of blood vessels are in the body?
    system of glands that produces hormones

    major component is the pituitary gland/ master endocrine gland

    63,000 miles of blood vessels
  112. describe the circulatory or cardiovascular system

    how many times should you exercise a week?
    system that pumps blood throughout the body.... heart is the major component

    3X for 30 min
  113. describe the blood flow to and from the heart.....

    where do exchanges occur in this flow?
    oxygen deprived blood goes through right ventricle-pulmonary artery-lung capillaries-pulmonary vein-left atrium-left ventricle- aorta-major arteries-arterioles-capillaries-venules-veins-vena cava- right atrium

    pulmonary vein, venules,
  114. what are the general functions of blood/hemoglobin? (5)

    what is phagocytosis
    • 1) transport waste and distribute heat
    • 2) store water
    • 3) clotting/self repair
    • 4) balance acidity
    • 5) protect against diseases

    disease that eats other cells and antibodies
  115. what are the reproductive systems basic functions
    produce gametes and sex hormones
  116. what is the integumentary systems functions... what is its alternative name
    • function to protection, temperature, regulation of pigmentation (its skin dummy)
    • cutaneous is the alternative name
  117. describe the muscular system and the main muscle proteins?

    what are the types of muscle tissues
    controls movement at all levels... main muscle proteins are myosin and actin

    skeletal, smooth & cardiac muscles
  118. what are antagonistic muscles?

    what are the advantages of fast twitch muscles? slow twitch?

    how many muscles are in the human body?
    what's the largest? smallest?
    how many muscles in foot
    muscles that in pair do the opposites of each other..... when you work out your biceps your triceps relax and vice versa

    fast twitch muscles are for sprinters slow twitch are for marathon runners


    • gluteus maximus; stapedius
    • 26 muscles in foot
  119. describe the excretory system and major structures

    basic unit of excretory system
    kidneys, ureters, bladder urethra is used to filter the blood, regulate water/salt balance and nitrogen (urea) excretion

  120. describe the skeletal systems functions and number of bones in the body
    protect, support, and muscle attachment are the major functions of the skeletal system also hold in calcium and phosphorus to prevent osteoporosis

    206 bones in the human body
  121. what is the acronym for the body systems

    name them?
    diner crimes

    digestive, immune, nervous, endocrine, respiratory circulatory/cardiovascular, reproductive, integumentary, muscular, excretory, skeletal
  122. who is abraham maslow and what was his contribution to science?

    describe and identify the needs?
    psychologist that prioritized all human needs. suggest that the biological needs were the most important of all

    biological needs= food, water, oxygen, mates

    oxygen is obviously the most important of these needs
  123. describe the composition of air
    N2-78%, O2-21%, Ar-0.9%, CO2-.03/.04%
  124. what is the air barometric pressure at sealevel?

    what is o2 partial pressure?
    760 mm Hg

    760 x 0.2095 = 159.2 mm Hg
  125. at high altitudes of 6000 meters air pressure drops to 380... so what happens.

    what does this mean
    the partial pressure drops to 380 x 0.2095 = 80 mm Hg which is to low to breathe

    oxygen level is still 21% but there is not enough pressure to force the oxygen into the lungs
  126. define: anoxic, hypoxic, normoxic, hyperoxic

    who is boby sants
    • anoxic- no oxygen
    • hypoxic-lower than normal
    • normoxic-normal concentration of oxygen
    • hyperoxic: more than normal

    to much oxygen is toxic

    irish republic army man who went on a hunger strike that lasted for 65 days.....he dies
  127. describe the findings from the O2 concentration table (4)

    where is the most adaptations of water capturing occur

    are there any homeotherms that breath water?
    • 1) water only contains 1/20th as much oxygen as air
    • 2) when temp goes up oxygen goes down
    • 3) when salt increases oxygen goes down (37 pp thousand %)
    • 4) farther from sea level incline/decline oxygen levels go down

    in water

    no... however some tuna and sharks can?
  128. define diffusion
    why is this important?
    what is fick's law of diffusion

    characteristics of a good gas changer? gas changer sites?

    what is a clacoa
    • movement of substance down a concentration gradient
    • important for di-oxygen carbon-dioxide transfers
    • rate= diffusion coefficient x area x (pressure/distance)

    large, thin, moist, vascular/blood supply, renewed media

    lungs, gills, skin, mouth, stomach.

    where turtles breathe from... out there anus
  129. identify and describe the 4 phases of respiration/ventilation
    • 1 ventilation/breathing
    • 2 external respiration= oxygen and blood in --> oxygenated blood and Carbon dioxide
    • 3 internal transport= oxygenated blood goes to tissue and releases the oxygen
    • 4 cellular respiration= di oxygen + 4 hydrogen --> 2 water molecules
  130. what are nares and what are the functions of sinuses
    what is a nasal conchae
    • nares are nostrils.... sinuses help decrease weight of skull and affect our speech
    • mucus membrane holder
    • throat behind the nose
  131. what are eustachin tubes?


    tubes that lead to the ear

    lymphatic tissue

    throat behind the mouth

    thing that dangles in the back of your throat
  132. what are the functions of the voice box/ larynx?

    what is the epiglottis

    cafe coronary means what
    sound production, pressure valve for coughing and sneezing

    keeps food out of the trachea

Card Set
Biology Exam 2
UNT Biology for Non-Majors Bittenger