pharm7 - neuro

  1. anticonvulsant drug classes (5+misc.)
    • hydantoins
    • barbituates
    • succinimides
    • diones
    • benzodiazepines
  2. anticonvulsant drug FX on memory formation

    drugs work by slowing down nerve conduction --> this slows down memory formation and leads to poorer school performance in kids
  3. higher or lower doses of anticonvulsants needed in elderly?
    lower bc metabolized more slowly. low doses prevent accumulation of drug in circulation.
  4. phenytoin [Dilantin]
  5. "...toin"
  6. a pt shouldn't change generic brands of this drug bc bioavailability varies
  7. hydantoin SFX
    • lethargy
    • ABN mvmt
    • cognitive changes - confusion
    • gingival hyperplasia
    • acne
    • periph polyneuropathy
    • bone marrow suppression
    • skin rash - benign
    • hirsutism
    • osteoporosis
  8. pt population esp susceptible to skin rash and hyperplasia
  9. pt population esp susceptible to skin rash, confusion, and slow drug metabolism
  10. hydantoin action
    inhibit spread of seizure by desensitizing Na channels
  11. ETOH interaction with hydantoins
    speeds up drug metabolism --> drug less effective
  12. "...barbitol"
    barbituates - anticonvulsant
  13. "...suximide"
    succinimides - used only to tx absence seizures
  14. "...zepam / zepate"
  15. valproic acid [Depakene] & valproate [Depakote]
    anticonvulsant - used alone to tx absence seizures or as adjunct for other types
  16. carbamazepine [Tegretol]

    pt at risk for heart block, bone marrow suppression, renal damage
  17. felbamate [Felbatol]
    anticonvulsant - dangerous (aplastic anemia, liver failure)

    used only to tx pts refractory to all other drugs
  18. lamotrigine [Lamictal]

    • used in conjunction with other seizure meds.
    • not teratogenic
  19. topiramate [Topamax]
  20. tiagabine [Gabitril]
  21. oxcarbazepine [Trileptal]

    similar to carbamazepine, but better tolerated
  22. levitiracetam [Keppra]
  23. magnesium sulfate uses and action
    • OB (stop premature labor, tx uterine ateny)
    • prevent ecclampsia

    action: suppress mm activity by making it unresponsive to neural signal to contract (blocks periph neurotransmission by reducing acetylcholine release at the myoneural junction)
  24. Mag SO4 (aka magnesium sulfate) therapeutic blood serum level
    4-6. >25 = cardiac arrest
  25. major risk to monitor for in pt receiving Mag SO4
    resp suppression - drug suppresses all mm activity, incl resp mm (will see decreased DTR even at therapeutic level)

    if DTRs are gone, need to reduce dose
  26. anticholinergics used to tx what disease?

    anticholinergics aka parasympatholytics
  27. cholinergic effects in body
    rest and digest, everything gets wetter

    • Salivation
    • Lacrimation
    • Urination
    • Diarrhea
    • GI motility
    • Emesis
  28. levodopa [L-dopa]
    dopamine increaser, used to tx Parkinsons
  29. amantadine [Symmetrel]
    dopamine releasing drug
  30. bromocriptine [Parlodel]
    dopamine agonist - stims production of more dopamine
  31. pegolide [Permax]
    stim receptors to used dopamine better
  32. levodopa-carbidopa [Sinemet]
    dopamine increaser
  33. entacapone [Comtan]
    COMT inhibitor - increases amt of available dopamine

    doesn't cause liver damage like tolcapone [Tasmar}
  34. tolcapone [Tasmar]
    COMT inhibitor - increases amt of available dopamine

    causes liver damage
  35. "...capone"
    COMT inhibitors
  36. physostigmine [Antilirium]
  37. pyridiostigmine [Mestinon]
  38. "...stigmine" and others
  39. bethanechol [Urecholine]
  40. tacrine [Cognex]
    cholinsterase inhibitor --> cholingeric drug

    used to tx Alzheimer's
  41. donepezil [Aricept]
    Alzheimer drug

    inhibits acetylcholinesterase (inhibits breakdown of acetylcholine)
  42. memantine [Namenda]
    tx Alzheimers
  43. interferon beta-1b [Betaseron] and interferon beta-1a [Avonex]
    main drugs for MS

    self-administered IM
  44. glatrimer acetate [Copaxone]
    drug for MS

    synthetic copy of myelin basic protein, so acts as a decoy to the immune sys. Abs attack this decoy instead of myelin itself.
  45. riluzole [Rilutek]
    drug for ALS (aka Lou Gehrig's disease)
  46. methylphenidate [Ritalin]
    amphetamine (CNS stimulant)
  47. amphetamine mixture [Adderall]
    amphetamine (CNS stimulant)
  48. doxapram [Dopram]
    analeptic (CNS stim)
  49. modafinil [Provigil]
    analeptic (CNS stim)
Card Set
pharm7 - neuro
pharm neuro