comp pt

  1. what are two ways to classify heart diseases?
    • anatomic classifications
    • etiologic classifications
  2. what are the four anatomic classifications?
    • pericardium
    • myocardium
    • endocardium
    • heart valves
  3. what are the five etiologic classifications?
    • congenital anomalies
    • atherosclerosis
    • hypertension
    • infectious agents
    • immunologic mechanisms
  4. what is a thickened and balloons back into the left atrium during the systolic phase?
    mitral valve prolapse
  5. mitral vavle prolapse is either ______ or ______
    asymptomatic or symptomatic
  6. what are the symptoms of mitral vavle prolapse?
    • palpitation
    • fatigue
    • atypical chest pain
    • systolic murmur
  7. t/f there is a possible need for premedication for mitral vavle prolapse
  8. what is a defect on the structure of heart and great vessels during birth
    congenital heart disease
  9. what are the causes of congenital heart disease 2
    • genetic
    • environmental
  10. what are the environmental cuases of congenital heart disease
    viral infection to the mother like rubella or drugs or a combination
  11. what are the seven signs and symptoms of congenital heart disease
    • easy fatigue
    • fainting
    • cyanosis of lips and nailbeds
    • poor growth
    • chest deformity
    • heart murmurs
    • congestive heart failure
  12. what are the three DH concerns for congenital heart disease
    • high risk for endocarditis
    • premedication recommended
    • maintenance of high level of oral health
  13. what is a complication following rheumatic fever
    rheumatic heart disease
  14. what is a microbial infection of the inner lining of the heart or heart valves
    infective endocarditis
  15. what is the cause of infective endocarditis
  16. what is the #1 symptom of infective endocarditis
  17. what is the second symptom of infective endocarditis
    heart murmur
  18. what ar ethe peripheral manifestations of infective endocarditis? 5
    • petechiae
    • osler's nodes
    • splinter hemorrhages
    • roth spots
    • digit clubbing
  19. what are the risk factors of infective endocarditis 5
    • pre existing cardiac abnormalities
    • bacteria in the inner lining of heart during bacteremia
    • heart valve replacements
    • history of previous endocarditis
    • intravenous drug abuse
  20. what is the dental hygiene care for infective endocarditis? 6
    • good oral health
    • instructions and education
    • sequence treatment
    • pre procedural rinse
    • brushing
    • flossing
  21. what is an abnormal rise of blood pressure, <140/90 mm Hg
  22. what is called the silent killer?
  23. what are the five predisposing or risk factors for hypertension?
    • tobacco use
    • heredity
    • body weight
    • salt consumption
    • sex, age, environment and ethnicity
  24. ____% of hypertension is secondary
  25. what is malignant hypertension
    BP >200/100 mmHG
  26. what are antihypertension meds? 4
    • diuretics
    • beta blockers
    • alpha blockers
    • direct vasodilators
  27. what are the dental implications AFTER tx for hypertension?
    • acute elevation of BP after Tx
    • stroke or MI
    • stress caused by LA
    • possible Drug Drug interaction
  28. what is a coronary atherosclerotic heart disease that is a build up of plaque on the arterial walls?
    ischemic heart disease
  29. what is chest pain caused from MI or lack of oxygen to the heart
    angina pectoris
  30. waht is the most common coronary artery disease?
  31. what % of angina attacks are related to atherosclerosis
  32. what are is the treatment for angina pectoris?
    • nitroglycerin sublingually
    • BLS with supplemental oxygen
  33. what are three tx modifications of angina pectoris
    • calm and comfortable
    • adminster oxygen
    • limit vasoconstrictors
  34. what are the 8 steps to take for an angina attack?
    • stop tx call for assistance and ermergency kit
    • upright position and reassure pt
    • adminster vasodilator (use pt nitroglycerin)
    • administer sublingual tablet
    • check response, apain should subside within minutes
    • call ems and assume MI. adminster oxygen
    • record vitals
    • observe recovery
  35. what is commonly known as a heart attack
    myocardial infarction
  36. what is a clinical syndrom caused by a deficient coronary arterial blood supply to a region of myocardiium that results in cellular death and necrosis
    myocardial infarction
  37. what is the tx modificatiosn for myocardial infarction
    elective dental appts postponed 6 months or more until pt physician has given consent
  38. what is an abnormality of cardiac function results on the failure of the heart to pump blood at a rate necessary to meet the need of the body tissue
    congestive heart failure
  39. what are the symptoms of congestive heart failure
    • dyspnea
    • fatigue or weakness
    • fear
    • anxiety
  40. what is a treatment modification for congestive heart failure
    if symptoms present cancel and refer to physician
  41. what are the clinical considerations for congestive heart failure? 3
    • no clinical findings from HF
    • meds=xerostomia and oral lesions
    • possible gag reflex
  42. what is any variation in the normal heartbeat, including rhythm disturbance, rate or conduction of the pattern of the heart
    cardiac arrhythmias
  43. what are the oral manifestations of cardiac arrhythmias
    ADEs of medicatons (dry mouth, bitter taste, gingival hyperplasia, hypersalivtion)
  44. what is similar to anemia, represents a symptom complex that can be caused by numerous diseases
    heart failure
  45. what is the end stage of cardiovascular diseases
    heart failure
  46. what are the tx modifications for heart failure?
    no CX to Tx unless modified to medications taken
  47. what do you do for uncontrolled or untreated heart failure?
    defer pt (refer to physician)
  48. what drugs do you avoid for heart failure?
    • epinephrine
    • vasoconstrictors
    • NSAIDS
  49. what chair position should you use for heart failure?
    semi supine or upright chair position
  50. what are the oral manifestations of heart failure?
  51. t/f only the drugs to manage heart failure can cause mouth or oral lesions
  52. t/f you need to note possible gag reflex with patients taking digitalis
  53. what dental equipment should you be concerned with for a pacemaker?
    • magnetic headrests
    • electrosurge
    • ultrasonic bath cleaners
    • ultrasonic scalers
  54. what are the symptoms during pacemaker malfunction?
    • dizzy
    • faint
    • short of breath
    • fatigued
    • most likely from inadequate amount of blood to brain
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