what are two ways to classify heart diseases?
- anatomic classifications
- etiologic classifications
what are the four anatomic classifications?
- heart valves
what are the five etiologic classifications?
- congenital anomalies
- infectious agents
- immunologic mechanisms
what is a thickened and balloons back into the left atrium during the systolic phase?
mitral valve prolapse
mitral vavle prolapse is either ______ or ______
asymptomatic or symptomatic
what are the symptoms of mitral vavle prolapse?
- atypical chest pain
- systolic murmur
t/f there is a possible need for premedication for mitral vavle prolapse
what is a defect on the structure of heart and great vessels during birth
congenital heart disease
what are the causes of congenital heart disease 2
what are the environmental cuases of congenital heart disease
viral infection to the mother like rubella or drugs or a combination
what are the seven signs and symptoms of congenital heart disease
- easy fatigue
- cyanosis of lips and nailbeds
- poor growth
- chest deformity
- heart murmurs
- congestive heart failure
what are the three DH concerns for congenital heart disease
- high risk for endocarditis
- premedication recommended
- maintenance of high level of oral health
what is a complication following rheumatic fever
rheumatic heart disease
what is a microbial infection of the inner lining of the heart or heart valves
what is the cause of infective endocarditis
what is the #1 symptom of infective endocarditis
what is the second symptom of infective endocarditis
what ar ethe peripheral manifestations of infective endocarditis? 5
- osler's nodes
- splinter hemorrhages
- roth spots
- digit clubbing
what are the risk factors of infective endocarditis 5
- pre existing cardiac abnormalities
- bacteria in the inner lining of heart during bacteremia
- heart valve replacements
- history of previous endocarditis
- intravenous drug abuse
what is the dental hygiene care for infective endocarditis? 6
- good oral health
- instructions and education
- sequence treatment
- pre procedural rinse
what is an abnormal rise of blood pressure, <140/90 mm Hg
what is called the silent killer?
what are the five predisposing or risk factors for hypertension?
- tobacco use
- body weight
- salt consumption
- sex, age, environment and ethnicity
____% of hypertension is secondary
what is malignant hypertension
BP >200/100 mmHG
what are antihypertension meds? 4
- beta blockers
- alpha blockers
- direct vasodilators
what are the dental implications AFTER tx for hypertension?
- acute elevation of BP after Tx
- stroke or MI
- stress caused by LA
- possible Drug Drug interaction
what is a coronary atherosclerotic heart disease that is a build up of plaque on the arterial walls?
ischemic heart disease
what is chest pain caused from MI or lack of oxygen to the heart
waht is the most common coronary artery disease?
what % of angina attacks are related to atherosclerosis
what are is the treatment for angina pectoris?
- nitroglycerin sublingually
- BLS with supplemental oxygen
what are three tx modifications of angina pectoris
- calm and comfortable
- adminster oxygen
- limit vasoconstrictors
what are the 8 steps to take for an angina attack?
- stop tx call for assistance and ermergency kit
- upright position and reassure pt
- adminster vasodilator (use pt nitroglycerin)
- administer sublingual tablet
- check response, apain should subside within minutes
- call ems and assume MI. adminster oxygen
- record vitals
- observe recovery
what is commonly known as a heart attack
what is a clinical syndrom caused by a deficient coronary arterial blood supply to a region of myocardiium that results in cellular death and necrosis
what is the tx modificatiosn for myocardial infarction
elective dental appts postponed 6 months or more until pt physician has given consent
what is an abnormality of cardiac function results on the failure of the heart to pump blood at a rate necessary to meet the need of the body tissue
congestive heart failure
what are the symptoms of congestive heart failure
- fatigue or weakness
what is a treatment modification for congestive heart failure
if symptoms present cancel and refer to physician
what are the clinical considerations for congestive heart failure? 3
- no clinical findings from HF
- meds=xerostomia and oral lesions
- possible gag reflex
what is any variation in the normal heartbeat, including rhythm disturbance, rate or conduction of the pattern of the heart
what are the oral manifestations of cardiac arrhythmias
ADEs of medicatons (dry mouth, bitter taste, gingival hyperplasia, hypersalivtion)
what is similar to anemia, represents a symptom complex that can be caused by numerous diseases
what is the end stage of cardiovascular diseases
what are the tx modifications for heart failure?
no CX to Tx unless modified to medications taken
what do you do for uncontrolled or untreated heart failure?
defer pt (refer to physician)
what drugs do you avoid for heart failure?
what chair position should you use for heart failure?
semi supine or upright chair position
what are the oral manifestations of heart failure?
t/f only the drugs to manage heart failure can cause mouth or oral lesions
t/f you need to note possible gag reflex with patients taking digitalis
what dental equipment should you be concerned with for a pacemaker?
- magnetic headrests
- ultrasonic bath cleaners
- ultrasonic scalers
what are the symptoms during pacemaker malfunction?
- short of breath
- most likely from inadequate amount of blood to brain