Animal Bio Exam 2

  1. Are lampreys considered vertebrates?
  2. Lampreys are considered ________.
  3. What does the hagfish eat?
    Scavenging dead or dying vertebrates from the ocean floor.
  4. How do hagfish feed?
    They feed by entering the animal through an existing hole or create one by using the sharp, toothlike structure on the end of it tongue.
  5. How do hagfish maintain leverage while feeding?
    the tie their tail in a knot.
  6. What is the hagfishes antipredator behavior?
    They tie themselves in a knot then exude a large amount of slime to make themselves slippery and repel the predator.
  7. The hagfish is _______ but has excellent ______and _______.
  8. _________ present the oldest living lineage of vertebrates.
  9. Lamprey larvae resemble __________.
  10. Lampreys larvae are _________ feeders.
  11. Lamprey larvae spend most of their time doing what?
    buried in sediment.
  12. Where do lampreys migrate once they mature?
    lakes and seas.
  13. Most species of lamprey are what?
  14. How does the lamprey eat?
    It attaches itself to the side of a fish, uses it rasping tongue to enter the skin, and then feed on its victim's blood and tissues.
  15. When did jawed vertebrates appear in the fossil record?
  16. What made jawed vertebrates a sucess?
    Jaws, paired fin and tail.
  17. How did jaws help with the success of vertebrates?
    They allowed a more wide variety of prey to be eaten.
  18. How did paired fins and tail help with the success of jawed vertebrates?
    By allowing them to chase and catch prey.
  19. The vast majority of vertebrates have what kind of jaws?
    Jaws supported by 2 skeletal parts held together by a hinge.
  20. Where did hinged jaws come from?
    They evolved by modification of skeletal support of the anterior pharyngeal(gill) slits.
  21. __________ evolved by modification of skeletal support of the anterior pharyngeal(gill) slits.
  22. What was the main function of gill slits before jaws?
    to entrap food particles.
  23. Chrondrichthyes are what kinds of animals?
    Sharks and Rays.
  24. Sharks and Rays are in the class _________/
  25. Chodrichtyans have what kind of material for their skeleton?
  26. large sharks are _________ feeders.
  27. Most sharks ________.
  28. _______ have elctrosensors.
  29. Electrosensors are what?
    Organs that can detect minute electrical fields produced by muscle contractions of nearby animals.
  30. __________ and _______ have a lateral line system.
    Sharks, most other aquadic vertebrates
  31. A lateral line system is?
    A row of sensory organs running along each side that are sensitive to cages in water pressure and can detect minor vibrations.
  32. ________ are dorsoventrally flattened.
  33. The largest ray eat by _________.
    Filter feeding
  34. The fin extensions near the face allow for what?
    Funneling of the water for suspension feeding.
  35. What are some ray-finned fish?
    Tuna, Trout, and Goldfish.
  36. What is the skeleton of ray-fish made of?
    Cartilage with an outer matrix of calcium phosphate.
  37. Most ray-fined fish have _______ scales and secrete _________to lower water drag.
    flattend, mucus
  38. What is an operculum?
    A protective flap that cover a chamber housing of gills.
  39. What does the operculum allow the fish to do?
    To breath without swimming.
  40. Ray-finned fishes have a ________ that allows them to maintain buoyancy.
    Swim bladder
  41. What is a swim bladder>
    A sac filled with gas that allows fish to maintain buoyancy.
  42. How did swim bladder evolve?
    They evolved from ballon-like lungs.
  43. Whan did ray-finned fishes emerge?
  44. What are the most abundant and varied vertebrates?
    Ray-finned fishes
  45. What is the key derived feature of a lob-finned fish?
    A series of rod-shaped bones in their muscular pectorial and pelvic fins.
  46. What did lobe-finned fish do and live during the Devonian?
    They lived in wetlands and used their fins to walk under water.
  47. What are the three lineages of the lobe-finned fish?
    Coelacanth, Lungfish, and tetrapods(who came onto land.)
  48. Lobe-finned fishes gave rise to ______.
  49. What are some of the challenges vetebrates faced coming onto land?
    Gas exchange, water conservation, structural support, reproduction, sensory, and locomotion.
  50. Alfred Romer hypothsoszed what?
    That lobe-finned fish used thier fins to hop from one poor of water to another pool of water.
  51. Tetrapods did what to breath?
    Raised themselves out of the wateriwth their fins.
  52. amphibians were very plentiful during what age?
    The Carboniferous.
  53. What are some amphibians?
    Frogs Salamanders, caecilians.
  54. Salamander are ______ and can ____________.
    Aquadic, live on land.
  55. Caecilians are ________ and look like_______.
    Blind, earthworms.
  56. What is a tadpole?
    It is the larval stage of a frog ,with no legs, gills, algea eater, and later line system.
  57. amphibians moist skin does what?
    Supplements lungs for gs exchange.
  58. Amphibains where the 1st vertebrates to do what?
    Colonize land.
  59. ______ and ________ are amniotes.
    Reptles and mammals
  60. What is the amniotic egg?
    An embryo developed in a fluid filled sac.
  61. The evolotuion of the amniotic egg was important becuase?
    It allowed the pond to be on land. They could reproduce anywhere.
  62. What keeps reptiles from drying out?
    Skin covered in waterproof scales and kertian.
  63. Reptiles are ____________, they gain heat from outside the body instead for creating thier own.
  64. small dinsoaurs where said to be __________, gained heat from the bodies metabolism.
  65. What did birds evolve from?
    Small two legged dinosaurs called theropods.
  66. What features of birds help them in flight?
    No teeth, tail supported by only a few vertebrae, honeycombed bone structure, and feather shafts are hollow.
  67. What are the 2 main lineages of amniotes?
    Reptiles(including birds) and mammals.
  68. What are mammilain hallmarks?
    Mammory glands and hair.
  69. A momtremes is a _______.
    A mammal that lays eggs.
  70. What are the 2 only monotremes in the world?
    Echindes( spiny ant eaters) and Duckbilled platypus.
  71. What is the placenta?
    A structure in which nutrients from the mother's blood diffuse into the embryo's blood.
  72. ________ have brief gestation and give birth to tiny embryonic offspring that will finish developing in a pouch on the mother.
  73. The external pouch on a Marsupial is called a _________.
  74. ________ are mammals that bear fully developed young.
  75. what are the primate features?
    Limber shoulder and hip joints, five digits, seperation of the big toe, sensetivity of hands and feet.
  76. Limber shoulder and hip joints, five digits, seperation of the big toe, sensetivity of hands and feet are features of what animals?
  77. Taiser are_______,
    Small, nocturnal tree-dwellers, with flat round eyes.
  78. Small, nocturnal tree-dwellers, with flat round eyes are part of what primate group?
  79. the primate group Anthropoids includes what animals?
    Monkeys and Apes.
  80. The ape group is called the ______.
  81. What are some features of Anthropoids?
    Head relative to body size, oposable thumb.
  82. Head relative to body size, oposable thumbare features of what primate group?
  83. New world monkeys are _________.
  84. New world monkeys have what features?
    Wide apart nostrils and prehensiled tail.
  85. Wide apart nostrils and prehensiled tail are features of what monkey group?
    New World monkeys.
  86. Old world monkeys have what features?
    Downward nostrils and ground dwelling.
  87. Downward nostrils and ground dwelling are features of what monkey group?
    Old world monkeys.
  88. How do monkeys differ from apes?
    By having forlimbs that are equal in length to hid limbs.
  89. What animals does the hominoid group contain?
    Gibbons, Orangutans, Gorillas, Chimpanzees, and humans.
  90. Paleoanthropology is _______.
    the study of human origins and evolution.
  91. Hominoids are___/
    Species that are closer to humans than chimpanzees.
Card Set
Animal Bio Exam 2
Biology review for test 2. Tarleton University