PSYC 270 Exam 2

  1. the effort to discover, and increase human understanding of how the physical world works
  2. "it has always been this way"
    (way of attaining knowledge)
  3. "it feels true"
    (way of attaining knowledge)
  4. "the _____ says its true"
    (way of attaining knowledge)
  5. "it makes sense logically"
    (way of attaining knowledge)
  6. "I observed it to be true"
    (way of attaining knowledge)
  7. Science uses both ______ and ______
    empiricism; rationalism
  8. interrelated set of concepts that is used to explain a body of data and make predictions about the results of future experiments
  9. specific predictions that are derived from theories
  10. essential goal of experiment
    to isolate the IV as the only source of explanation for changes in the DV
  11. Science is not defined by...
    subject matter or apparatus
  12. an investigation in which at least one variable is manipulated by the researcher.
  13. occurs when you select an IV and another variable varies with it
  14. variables that cannot be manipulated by the investigator
    subject variables
  15. we have less confidence in our conclusions when we cannot manipulate the ______
    independent variable
  16. can theoretically take on any value within a range of values

    Ex. Height in inches
    continuous variable
  17. take on a limited number of values

    Ex. Gender, Year in school
    discrete variable

    NOTE: each category of a discrete variable is called a level
  18. The numbers have only the property of identity

    Ex: jersey numbers, M/F, ethnicity
    nominal scale of measurement
  19. Indicates rank ordering, distances between attributes do not have any meaning

    Adding or multiplying are meaningless (thus you can not use a mean)

    Ex: rank order of student preference for Coke, Pepsi, Vinegar
    ordinal scale of measurement
  20. A scale that indicates an amount (but there is no 0 point), distance between attributes does have meaning

    Averages, SDs are meaningful but not ratios

    Ex: Virtually all psychological measurements (e.g. IQ scores, likert ratings), the distance from 30-40 is same as distance from 70-80 (but 80 degrees is not
    twice as hot as 40 degrees)
    interval scale of measurement
  21. A scale that has equal intervals with a true zero

    Many forms of measurement in physics are ratio, but this is rare in psychology

    Ex: You have $25 in your bank account, Bill Gates has $3,246,294,387.07 in his account. You have
    7.7x10-9 the amount of money that he has in his account.
    ratio scale of measurement
  22. Unplanned and uncontrolled factor(s) that can arise in an experiment and affect the outcome
    extraneous variable
  23. An unwanted factor that affects groups differently and make it difficult to know what caused changes in the dv
    confounding variable
  24. A researcher manipulates an independent variable and controls for possible confounds; make CAUSAL statements
    experimental research design
  25. No explicit manipulation of variables; no differential treatment of groups or differential treatment of one participant at different times; do NOT allow researchers to determine exactly how changes in one or more variables produce, or cause, changes in another variable.

    Examples: naturalistic observation,correlational, ex-post facto/quasi-experimental
    non-experimental research design
  26. Comparing existing groups (classification variables) to see if they differ
    quasi-experimental research
  27. In-depth research of a single individual or a few people without any manipulation of the environment
    case study research
  28. Using existing information (e.g., documents, newspaper reports, etc.) to address behavioral issues
    archival research
  29. Studying people in their natural environment descriptively (without numerical analyses) and holistically
    qualitative research
  30. Recording naturally occurring behavior without intervention or manipulation of variables
    observational research
  31. A definition of a variable in terms of the actual procedures used by the researcher to measure and/or manipulate it

    Example: concept social behavior: “the number
    of people who spend time in groups,” “the number of times an individual approaches another individual to interact with him or her,” or “the score on a
    questionnaire that asks about social behaviors”
    operational definition
  32. refers to the process of assigning arbitrary symbols (usually numbers), according to a predetermined set of rules, to different events or object
  33. potential problems with observational studies:
    • Subject reactivity & observer effects
    • Time consuming
    • Multiple observers = measure inter rater reliability
    • Also, despite our best intentions, we might draw unjustified conclusions from our observations
  34. External validity can be high during _________
    naturalistic observation
  35. degree to which the results of a study apply to individuals and realistic behaviors outside the study
    external validity
  36. degree to which a study provides causal information about behavior (with alternative explanations of
    the data ruled out)
    internal validity
  37. degree to which the results of a study can be replicated under similar conditions
  38. goal of naturalistic observation:
    to be unobtrusive so that the researcher does not affect the observed individuals’ behavior; NOT to establish cause and effect (no manipulation)
  39. with multiple observers, there must be training and checking to ensure that behaviors are coded in the same way
    interrater reliability
  40. Pros of archival research
    Quick data collection; Few resources needed
  41. Cons of archival research
    Researcher has no control over how the data are coded
  42. scores are indicative of the psychological construct the survey was designed to measure
    construct validity
  43. determining the validity of the scores of a survey by examining the relationship between the survey scores
    and other established measures of the behavior of interest

    Ex: the SAT is used as a college
    entrance exam because scores on this test
    have been tested with academic achievement in college (specifically, first-year gpa, 4-year gpa, and college graduation)
    criterion-related validity
  44. A biased sample that doesn’t accurately reflect the population of interest can reduce the _______ of the
    survey measure
  45. a sampling error that occurs when individuals chosen for the sample do not respond to the survey, biasing the sample
    nonresponse errors
  46. Way to increase reliability:
    Have a longer survey
  47. the scores are similar each time a participant takes the survey
    Test-retest reliability
  48. a form of reliability that tests relationships between scores on different items of a survey
    internal consistency
  49. a measure of reliability (internal consistency) based on the average correlations between pairs of items on a survey
    Cronbach’s alpha
  50. there is potentially a difference in the people who respond to a survey compared to those who do not; can be alleviated by offering incentives (problem with survey)
    non-response bias/imperfect response rates
  51. Class of biasing influences that cause people to distort the truth, e.g. social desirability (problem with survey)
    response bias
  52. Participants may not know the answers (problem with survey)
    knowledge and recall
  53. 2 questions in 1 question
    double-barreled question
  54. Avoid _______ questions
  55. Avoid _______ wording
  56. people favor option presented last; also, the answer to a question might be influenced by the question asked before it.

    Example: divorce survey
    order effects
  57. How to fix an order effect:
Card Set
PSYC 270 Exam 2
psychology research methods