The tendency of molecules to move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
What is Diffusion?
Ducts that terminate the microscopic branches from the bronchioles which lead to the alveoli.
What are alveolar ducts?
phospholipids that assist in the exchange of gas by reducing surface
tension, which contributes to lung elasticity and thereby contributes to
its general compliance. They also stabilize the alveoli.
What are Surfactants?
air-containing spaces in skull and facial bones that lighten the head
and act as resonance chambers for sound. These cavities have multiple
names for the bones which they are located.
What is a Sinus?
located in the alveolar ducts of the lungs, these tiny sacs attached to
them, groups of these are called alveolur sacs which resemble a cluster
of grapes. Made of a single-layer epithelial tissue, this simple
structure makes gas exchange possible. Approx 300 million in the lungs,
providing an immese surface area of 1000 sq feet, each coated with fluid
What is Alveoli?
Also known as inhalation, the process that is responsible for drawing
air into the lungs. Diaphragm contracts and decends into abdominal
cavity to increase size of thoracic cavity. Accessory muscles raise
chest and ribs. Can be forced.
What is Inspiration?
Also know as exhalation, process responsible for expelling air from the
lungs. Diaphragm relaxes and ascends toward thoracic cavity to decrease
in size, creating an increase in air pressure. Expels air back into the
atmosphere. Can be forced.
What is Expiration?
Also called the throat, a muscular tube approximately 5 inches long that
is shared by the respitory and digestive systems. Located anterior to
cervical vertebrae. Contains the tonsils (pharengyeal, adnoids, palatine
and lingual) which help the immune system.
What is the Pharynx?
the part of the pharynx that extends from behind the nasal cavity.
What is the Nasalpharynx?
the part of the pharynx that is to the back of the oral cavity.
the part of the pharynx that goes down to the larynx.
What is the Larygealpharynx?
projections form these lateral walls that create the passage ways in the
nasal cavity. The are named superior, middle and inferior.
What are the Nasal Conchae?
two funnel-shaped orifices located in Nasal cavity just above the
What are the Posterior nares?
hairlike projections on the outer surfaces of certain cells that traps
particles and moves them up the throat to clean air.
What is Cilia?
another name for the nasal cavity, these functions assist in cleaning
and filtering air into the body.
What are the air-conditioning chambers?
a complex coordination of muscles and nerves create this by air moving
over vocal cords combined with movements of fascial muscle and tongue,
What is Speech?
port of entry for air and the beginning of the air conduction pathway.
Primarily made of hyaline and elastic cartilidge. The structures
1. Nasal Bones
2. Two Nostrils
3. Nasal Cavity
What is the nose?
one of the three structures of the mucosal lining in the nasal cavity,
cells that produce mucus that moistens the air and traps incoming
What are Goblets Cells?
refers to sense of smell, through the act of inhalation, scent molecules
enter the nose and are forced against the nasal cavities mucosal
lining. Chemoreceptors embedded in the nasal mucosa send nerve impulses
of scent to the brain.
What is olfaction?
primary function of the respitory system, oxygen and carbon dioxide
exchange. A constant intake of oxygen is essential for maintaining life.
Without oxygen intake and elimination of carbon dioxide, body cells
would start to die. (Cell Nacrosis)
What is Exchange of Gases?
part of the lower respiratory tract, large air-conduction passagways
leading from the trachea to each lung. Each tube-like structures is
reinforced with hyaline cartilage, helping keep the airway open. There
is one on the right and one on the left.
What is Bronchi?
also called the nostrils, these are the two external openings in the
nose where air is breathed in to the nasal cavity
What are Anterior nares?
also known as the voice box, this triangle-shaped structure formed by
three simple and three paired cartilages.
What is the Larynx?
two sets of cords that are used for voice production, the true pair
which is Superior and the inferior false pair which can be trained for
ventriqulism and singers with two octives.
What are the Vocal Cords?
one of the single laryngeal cartilages that closes the trachea during
swallowing (deglutition) preventing food from entering passageways.
What is the Epiglottis?
spongy, highly elastic paired organs of respiration, they extend from
the diaphragm to just above the clavicles and lie against the interior
portion of the rib cage. Fill most of thoracic cavity, weighs less than
1lb each. Right one has three lobes, left one has two lobes because the
heart is more localized on the left side.
What are the Lungs?
the reason the left lung has only two lobes and the right one which has
three, this is name for the depression in the left lung to accomodate
What is the Cardiac Notch?
a dome-shaped muscular partition that seperates the thoracic cavity from
the abdominal cavity, main muscle of respiration. Consists of both
contractile muscle fibers and resistant tendinous connective tissues,
which serve to increase extensibility and help keep its firm shape.
What is the Respitory Diaphragm?
1. _______ refers to labored or difficult breathing.
2. _______ refers to the temporary cessation of breathing
3. _______ refers to inadequate oxygen at the cellular level. characterized by cyanosis, tachycardia, hypertension, and mental confusion.
4. _______ a condition of lack of oxygen either locally or systemically, inability for body to carry oxygen in the bloodstream.
- 1. Dyspnea
- 2. Apnea
- 3. Hypoxia
- 4. Anoxia
The total amount of air that can be forcibily inspired and expired from the lungs in one breath.
What is Vital Capacity?
One of the forms of Respiration, this is gas exchange in the lungs, between blood and air in the alucoli that came from the external environment. Oxygen diffuses from air inside alveoli, across the alveolar calls into blood capilariesw, oxygen binds to the hemoglobin in
red blood cells and is transported throughout the body. Cabon dioxide diffused and exhaled.
What is External (Pulmonary) Respiration?
one of the forms of Respiration, the gas exchange between blood and the body's tissues. Oxygen diffuses from blood into the cells, carbon dioxide diffuses from cells into blood stream. Each cell assist in absorption of oxygen and removal of wastes in this process.
What is Internal (Tissue) Respiration?
During inhalation, the ability of the thorax and lungs to stretch during inspiration.
What is Compliance?
During inhalation, the tendency of the thorax and lungs to return to their pre-inspiration size.
What is Elastic Recoil?
also known as the windpipe, is a tube from the larynx to the upper
chest. Located anterior to the esophagus, it measures approx 9 to 10
inches long and consists of 16 to 21 half-ring hyaline cartilages. it
bifurates at its base into the two primary bronchi.
What is the Trachea?
one of the modified respitory movements of the body, this is a sudden
expulsion of air to clear the lungs and passagways, protective reflex,
can be voluntary induced or involuntary due to choking on food or drink
or a tickle in the throat.
What is Coughing?
one of the modified respitory movements of the body, this is a response
to emotions, such as grief, pain, fear or joy. Common breath pattern
involves sudden inspiration by release of air in short breaths.
What is Crying?
one of the modified respitory movements of the body, also called
hiccoughs, are intermitted contractions of the diaphragm followed by
spasmodic closure of vocal cords. Usually cannot be cured, but run its
course till the diaphragm rests.
What are Hiccups?
one of the modified respitory movements of the body, same modified air
movements as crying and is usually the response to happiness, being
tickled or something funny. During laughter, the mouth is open in a
grin. Short sudden breaths
What is Laughing?
one of the modified respitory movements of the body, this forceful
involuntary expulsion of air through the nose and mouth as a result of
an irritation of the respitory lining. Can be caused by illness, dust,
dander or other irritants.
What is Sneezing?
one of the modified respitory movements of the body, this is an audible
breathing during sleep which is caused by the ulvia.
What is Snoring?
one of the modified respitory movements of the body, this is a very deep
breath, intiated by opening the mouth wide and expanding of the chest.
Scientists believe this is triggered by the bodys need for increased
What is Yawning?
What are the (7) Modified Respitory Air Movements?
- 1. Coughing
- 2. Crying
- 3. Hiccups
- 4. Laughing
- 5. Sneezing
- 6. Snoring
- 7. Yawning
What is the difference between External and Internal Respiration?
- External Respiration Pulmonary
- Gas exchange in lungs
- O2 diffusion from aveoli
- CO2 diffuses from blood across avelorar walls
- O2 binds to Hemoglobin then transported thru body
- Internal Respiration
- Tissue gas exchange
- in tissues .O2 diffusion from the blood into the cells
- CO2 diffuses from the cells into the blood stream
- Each tissue cell assists in absorption of O2 and removal of waists
What is the difference between Inspiration and Expiration?
- Diaphragm releases and ascendsforces air out of lungs
- Elastic Recoil
- Internal Intercostals
- Transverse Abdominal muscles
- diaphragm concracts and extends forces air into lungs
- External intercostal SCM, Scalenes, Pectoralis minor
What is the Pathway of structures (8) or pathway of air conduction?
1> 2 > 3 > 4 > 5 > 6 > 7 > 8
- 1. Anterior Nares (nostrils) into the >
- 2. Nasal Cavity into the >
- 3. Pharynx (Nasalpharynx, oropharynx, laryngealpharynx) into the >
- 4. Larynx into the >
- 5. Trachea into the >
- 6. Bronchi into the >
- 7. Bonchioles into the >
- 8. Alveoli to each Lung where gas exchange occurs
What are the 2 processes of Pulmonary Ventilation?
- Passive Expiration:
- Diaphragm relaxes into thoracic cavity
- Decrease > volume in thoracic Cavity
- Increase < air pressure forces air out of lungs
- Active Inspiration:
- Diaphragm contracts, pulls central tendon down
- Increase > Volume in thoracic cavity
- Decrease< air pressure Forces air into lungs.
What are the (5) structures of the Lower Respiratory Tract?
- 1. Trachea or Windpipe
- 2. Bronchi (includes Bronchioles)
- 3. Alveoli (contains Alvelor sacs, surfacents)
- 4. Lungs
- 5. Respitory Diaphragm
What is the Primary Muscle of Inspiration (Inhalation)?
Diaphragm - contracts and descrends into abdominal cavity to increase size of thoracic cavity
What are the 4 Accessory Muscles of Inspiration (Inhalation)?
- SCM, Pectoralis minor - pulls ribs out
- External Intercostals - contract pull ribs in.
- Scalenes - draws air into lungs
What are the 2 Accessory Muscles of Forced Expiration?
(Unlike regular expiration, these are used with the diaphragm)
- 1. Adominals (Transverse Abdominals)
- 2. Intercostals
What is the three mechnisms of Breathing?
- 1. Pulmonary Ventilition - Breathing (mechanisms of inhaling and exhaling)
- 2. External Pulmonary Respiration - extraction of oxygen and disposal of carbon dioxide
- 3. Internal Systemic Respiration - attaining oxygen to the cells and removing carbon dioxide from the cells.
What is the Anatomy of the Respitory System in order?
- 1. Nose
- 2. Nasal Cavity
- 3. Pharynx
- 4. Larynx
- 5. Trachea
- 6. Bronchi
- 7. Bronchioles
- 8. Alveoli
- 9. Lungs
- 10. Respitory
What are the 4 Structures of the Upper Respitory Tract?
- 1. Nose
- 2. Nasal Cavity
- 3. Pharynx
- 4. Larynx
What are the (4) Paranasal Sinuses? (Named for the bones at which they are located)
- 1. Frontal Sinus
- 2. Sphenoidal Sinus
- 3. Ethmoidal Sinus
- 4. Maxillary Sinus
What is the (2) functions of the air-conditoning chambers?
- 1. The Mucosal lining of the nasal cavity becomes warm and moist as air flows over it
- 2. Tries to clean air before it enters the lungs by
- Cilia trapping air particles and move them up and down the throat.
- Goblet Cells produce mucus that moistens the air and traps incoming
- foreign particles.
What are the (4) functions of the Respitory System?
- 1. Exchanges of Gases which is the primary function
- 2. Olfaction or sense of smell
- 3. Speech
- 4. Homeostatis - maintain oxygen levels in blood and assist through elimination of wastes such as carbon dioxide
- which in excess in blood can lead to dangerouc acidic condition
What are the three components of the Mucosal Lining?
- 1. Blood Capillaries
- 2. Cells with Cilia
- 3. Goblet Cells
What is another name for nosebleeds?
Epistaxis - because the mucosa has such a rich blood supply.