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Mechanism of Action
Selective beta-2 agonist that stimulates adrenergic receptors of the sympathomimetic nervous system resulting in smooth muscle relaxation in the bronchial tree and peripheral vasculature.
Treatment of bronchospasm in patients with reversible obstructive airway disease (COPD,asthma). Prevention of exercise-induced bronchospasm.
Known prior hypersensitivity reactions to albuterol. Tachycardia arrhythmias, especially those caused by digitalis. Synergistic with other sympathomimetics.
Often dose-related and include restlessness, tremors, dizziness, palpitations, tachycardia, nervousness, peripheral vasodilation, nausea, vomiting, hyperglycemia, increased blood pressure, and paradoxical bronchospasm.
Tricyclic antidepressants may potentiate vasculature effects. Beta blockers are antagonistic. May potentiate hypokalemia caused by diuretics.
- Solution for aerosolization: 0.5% (5mg/ml).
- Metered dose inhaler: 90 mcg/metered spray (17-g canister with 200 inhalations).
- Syrup: 2 mg/5ml.
Dosage and Administration
- Adult: Administer 2.5 mg. Dilute 0.5 ml of 0.5% solution for inhalation with 2.5 ml normal saline in nebulizer and administer over 10-15 minutes. MDI: 1-2 inhalations (90-180 mcg). Five minutes between inhalations.
- Pediatric: Administer solution of 0.01-0.03 ml (0.05-0.15 mg/kg/dose diluted in 2 ml of 0.09% normal saline. May repeat every 20 minutes three times.
Duration of action
- Onset: in 5-15 minutes with
- Peak effect: in 30 minutes to 2 hours and
- Duration: of 3-4 hours.
Pregnancy safety: Category C. Antagonized by beta blockers (eg, Inderal, Lopressor). May precipitate angina pectoris and arrhythmias. Should only be administered by inhalation methodology in prehospital management.