How does sound travel?
In waves created by compression and rarefaction of air molecules.
Loss of energy in each successive cycle of C/R
Volume of air being moved by each cycle of C/R
Measurement of cycle frequency within a specific time
Enhances, amplifies, and sustains sound
- Throat (Pharynx)
Sympathectic Vibrating Sources of Feedback
Sound Character Determined by:
- Combined Resonators
Sound Character Size
- Larger = darker
- Smaller = brighter
Sound Character Surface/Composition
- Harder enhances closer to resonator formant
- Softer dampens, decays more quickly
Sound Character Aperture
- Open = brighter
- Closed = darker
Sound Character Shape
- Cone: all enhanced
- Cylinder: determined by length
- Sphere: determined by aperture
Sound Character Combined Resonators
Pharynx & Mouth + Nasal Cavity
Regular, repeating sound waves (vowels)
Irregular pattern (consonants)
Vibration recipe/acoustic mix of sounds
- a. Region of frequencies in which there is a greater acoustic energy
- b. Natural resonance frequency of a vocal tract
- Velum/Soft Palate
In what direction can the laynx move?
Up or Down
How do the lips move?
Open or Close
How can the velum or soft palate be adjusted?
Up or Down
How can the tongue be adjusted?
- Foward or Backwards
- High or Low
4 Resonator Fauls
- Too Mouth-Oriented
- Too Throat-Oriented
What causes Post-Nasality or Honk?
The velum being too low and too limp
What can be used to identify Post Nasality or Honk?
- Listen for muddled consonants
- Have student hold nose while singing (can they still sing?)
- Sing "e"
What exercises can be used to fix Post Nasality or Honk?
- The velum needs to be raised
- Sing "er"
- Pretend hot potatoes are in mouth
- French vowels
What causes Twang?
Constriction or tension in pharynx
How can one identify Twang?
- Sounds nasally
- Tense when traveling through range
- Can sing low notes, but has trouble with high pitches
What exercises can be used to fix Twang?
- Student must learn to relax
- Sing a relaxed "v"
- Sighing or "oo"
- Image: yawn vs. swallowing
What causes a voice to be Too Mouth-Oriented?
- Tongue is high
- Soft Palate is too low
How can a singer be identified as having Too Mouth-Oriented of a voice?
- Sound is all in mouth
- Can only sing in middle range
What exercises can be used to fix a voice that is Too Mouth-Oriented?
- Lower Tongue/Raise Soft Palate
- Lower larynx
- Relax lips
- Julia Child voice
What causes a voice to be Too Throat-Oriented?
- Pharynx is too low
- Tongue is too low
- Mouth is too closed
- Bad access to nasal port
What identifies a vocalist as having a voice that is Too Throat-Oriented?
Lots of tension
What exercises can be used to fix a voice that is Too Throat-Oriented?
- Sing on "ng"
- Raising & Lowering Larynx
- Quick scales for relaxation & flexibility
Calluses on vocal chords
3 Parts of the Pharynx
How does the size of the Pharynx change?
By moving the Larynx
What determines Aperture?
What type of muscle are the lips?
You cannot adjust diction...
...without having an impact on resonance.
Vibrator does not have contact with resonator (eg. chest)
Vibrator has contact with resonator (harder products are better conductors)
Resonator must have:
- Resonating space