Resonance Test

  1. How does sound travel?
    In waves created by compression and rarefaction of air molecules.
  2. Sound Decay
    Loss of energy in each successive cycle of C/R
  3. Sound Amplitude
    Volume of air being moved by each cycle of C/R
  4. Hz
    Measurement of cycle frequency within a specific time
  5. Resonance
    Enhances, amplifies, and sustains sound
  6. Primary Resonators
    • Throat (Pharynx)
    • Mouth
    • Nose
  7. Secondary Resonator
  8. Sympathectic Vibrating Sources of Feedback
    • Chest
    • Sinus Cavities
  9. Sound Character Determined by:
    • Size
    • Surface/Composition
    • Aperture
    • Shape
    • Combined Resonators
  10. Sound Character Size
    • Larger = darker
    • Smaller = brighter
  11. Sound Character Surface/Composition
    • Harder enhances closer to resonator formant
    • Softer dampens, decays more quickly
  12. Sound Character Aperture
    • Open = brighter
    • Closed = darker
  13. Sound Character Shape
    • Cone: all enhanced
    • Cylinder: determined by length
    • Sphere: determined by aperture
  14. Sound Character Combined Resonators
    Pharynx & Mouth + Nasal Cavity
  15. Acoustic Music
    Regular, repeating sound waves (vowels)
  16. Acoustic Noise
    Irregular pattern (consonants)
  17. Acoustic Spectrum
    Vibration recipe/acoustic mix of sounds
  18. Formant
    • a. Region of frequencies in which there is a greater acoustic energy
    • b. Natural resonance frequency of a vocal tract
  19. Adjustable Resonators
    • Larynx
    • Lips
    • Velum/Soft Palate
    • Tongue
  20. In what direction can the laynx move?
    Up or Down
  21. How do the lips move?
    Open or Close
  22. How can the velum or soft palate be adjusted?
    Up or Down
  23. How can the tongue be adjusted?
    • Foward or Backwards
    • High or Low
  24. 4 Resonator Fauls
    • Post-nasality/Honk
    • Twang
    • Too Mouth-Oriented
    • Too Throat-Oriented
  25. What causes Post-Nasality or Honk?
    The velum being too low and too limp
  26. What can be used to identify Post Nasality or Honk?
    • Listen for muddled consonants
    • Have student hold nose while singing (can they still sing?)
    • Sing "e"
  27. What exercises can be used to fix Post Nasality or Honk?
    • The velum needs to be raised
    • Sing "er"
    • Pretend hot potatoes are in mouth
    • Snoring
    • French vowels
  28. What causes Twang?
    Constriction or tension in pharynx
  29. How can one identify Twang?
    • Sounds nasally
    • Tense when traveling through range
    • Can sing low notes, but has trouble with high pitches
  30. What exercises can be used to fix Twang?
    • Student must learn to relax
    • Sing a relaxed "v"
    • Sighing or "oo"
    • Image: yawn vs. swallowing
  31. What causes a voice to be Too Mouth-Oriented?
    • Tongue is high
    • Soft Palate is too low
  32. How can a singer be identified as having Too Mouth-Oriented of a voice?
    • Sound is all in mouth
    • Breathiness
    • Can only sing in middle range
  33. What exercises can be used to fix a voice that is Too Mouth-Oriented?
    • Lower Tongue/Raise Soft Palate
    • Lower larynx
    • Relax lips
    • Yawn
    • Julia Child voice
  34. What causes a voice to be Too Throat-Oriented?
    • Pharynx is too low
    • Tongue is too low
    • Mouth is too closed
    • Bad access to nasal port
  35. What identifies a vocalist as having a voice that is Too Throat-Oriented?
    Lots of tension
  36. What exercises can be used to fix a voice that is Too Throat-Oriented?
    • Sing on "ng"
    • Raising & Lowering Larynx
    • Quick scales for relaxation & flexibility
  37. Nodes
    Calluses on vocal chords
  38. 3 Parts of the Pharynx
    • Naso-Pharynx
    • Oro-Pharynx
    • Laryngo-Pharynx
  39. How does the size of the Pharynx change?
    By moving the Larynx
  40. What determines Aperture?
    • Lips
    • Tongue
    • Soft Palate
  41. What type of muscle are the lips?
    Sphincter muscles
  42. Singer's Formant
    2800-3200 Hz
  43. You cannot adjust diction...
    ...without having an impact on resonance.
  44. Sympathetic Reonance
    Vibrator does not have contact with resonator (eg. chest)
  45. Conductive Resonator
    Vibrator has contact with resonator (harder products are better conductors)
  46. Resonator must have:
    • Resonating space
    • Air
    • Chamber
Card Set
Resonance Test
Cards for Vocal Ped Test #3: Resonance