Chapter 9

  1. Respondent Behavior
    (Type S Conditioning)
    some type of stimulus is present and elicits a response
  2. Operant Behavior
    (Type R behavior)
    • Influence by the consequences or result of a behavior
    • response followed by a stimulus that will effect the frequency of response
    • a behavior and a reinforcer are required
  3. Thorndike's Law of Effect
    • All things being equal, any behvaior followed by a satisfying state of affairs will increase in frequency.
    • All things being equal, any behavior followed by an annoying sttae of affairs will decrease in frequency.
  4. Operant Level
    the frequency of repsonse before the introduction of a reinforcer
  5. Shaping
    differential reinforcement (shift what is being reinforced) of successive approximations
  6. Punishment
    A behvaior is followed by a negative stimulus (does not matter if it was intentional or not) that decreases the frequency of behavior
  7. Extinction
    • the removal of reinforcement for a previously reinforced response
    • results in a decrease in the rate of responding and returns to the operant level
  8. Corporal Punishment
    • physical punishment
    • to be effective
    • ~follow unwanted behavior immediately
    • ~be strong enough to deter behavior
    • ~ consistent and fair
    • may have negative consequences
  9. Discriminative Stimulus
    • S^d
    • sets the occassion for reinforcement
    • stimuli that are similar to the original Sd will also elicit responding through stimulus generalization
  10. Primary Reinforcers
    related to survival, require no previous learning to have significance
  11. Secondary Reinforcers
    acquire reinforcing properties though being paired with primary reinforcers
  12. Generalized Reinforcers
    do not depend on a particular emotional state
  13. Chaining
    situation in which one repsonse brings the organism into contact with that stimuli
  14. Continual System of Reinforcement
    reward all reponses each time
  15. Partial reinforcement
    only reinforce certain responses
  16. Fixed Interval
    • reinforcement is provided for the first responce that occurs ater some period of fixed time has elapsed.
    • has the slowest rate of responding
  17. Fixed Ratio
    • Reinforcement is provided after a fixed number fo responses
    • Leads to a steady rate of responding characterized by post-reinforcement responding
    • second highest rate of responding
  18. Variable Interval
    reinforcement is provided for the first response that occurs after a varying interval of time.
  19. Variable Ratio
    • reinforcement is provided after a varying number of responses
    • has the highest rate of responding
  20. Partial Reinforcement Schedules
    All partial reinforcement schedules lead to an increase resistance to extinction
Card Set
Chapter 9
B. F Skinner