DNA forensics

  1. What is Forensic Science (forensics)?
    The application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system
  2. What are some Real world DNA fingerprinting Applications?
    • Crime Scence
    • Family Pedigree
    • Anthropology Studies
    • Food Identification
    • Human Remains Identity
    • Monitoring Transplants
  3. What are the 6 basic concepts in physical evidence?
    • The division of matter
    • Transfer
    • Identification
    • Classification or Individualization
    • Association
    • Reconstruction
  4. What are the 2 fundamental scientific principles for analysis of forensic evidence?
    • Divisible matter- prior event before transfer
    • Transfer matter- sharing or exchanging of matter when crime is commited
  5. What is identification?
    Answers what it is (type of collected evidence)
  6. What is classification?
    Categorizing of collected evidence
  7. What is individualization?
    Unique characteristics
  8. When was the first time DNA evidence was used to convict a person in the US?
  9. How much of DNA is used for forensics?
  10. What is genetics?
    The study of gene variation and inheritance
  11. What are alleles?
    An alternative form of a gene or a trait or a marker
  12. What is a locus?
    the site where a molecule of a gene/a DNA sequence resides on the chromosome
  13. What is a genetic marker?
    A segment of DNA with identifiable physical location on a chromosome
  14. What is genetic marker frequency?
    The frequency of a given marker in a population
  15. What is genetic concordance?
    The measure of strength of marker evidence
  16. What does linkage disequilibrium explain?
    Non-random association of alleles at two or more loci
  17. How is in vitro DNA replicated?
    by PCR
  18. What does RFLP do?
    It is one of the techniques of DNA typing
  19. What is HLA-DQ alpha, HLA-DQA1 and how are the results shown?
    • Human leukocyte antigen locus
    • Marker found in human chromosome 6
    • Shown in strip reverse dot blot
  20. What is AmpliType PM+DQA1 (polymarker)?
    • Modified system of HLA-DQA1
    • Uses polymarkers to increase the power of discrimination (using PCR)
  21. What are the sources of DNA in human cells?
    • Nuclear DNA
    • Mitochondrial DNA (autonomous circle of DNA)
    • mtDNA- (inherited from maternal side only)
  22. What is hetroplasmy?
    A mixture of mtDNA type
  23. What are samples for mt DNA?
    • Hair shaft
    • Nails
    • Old bones
  24. What is the advantage of multiplex PCR?
    10 or more STR loci can be simultaneously amplified
Card Set
DNA forensics
Test One DNA forensics (Chapters one-five)