510 Midterm

  1. Therapeutic Alliance
    • Quality of personal relationship between therapist and client that allows them to function as a team with goals
    • Positive affective aspect of the relationship that allows the client to feel valued and liked
    • Considered the main predictor of outcome
  2. Choosing to follow ESTs vs common factors is influenced by
    • Insurance companies insist on use of ESTs for reimbursement
    • Clients can sue if ESTs were called for but not used
    • Common factors are enhanced by ESTs
  3. Theory
    • Set of related principles that explains a group of phenomena
    • Allows predictions about future
    • Can be tested for accuracy
    • Helps comprehension and guides action in relevant situations
  4. Case Conceptualization
    • Theory of the person
    • Organizes information

    • Different from diagnosis because:
    • integrates healthy, adaptive elements of client
    • individualized
  5. Informed Consent
    • Letting client know about goals, techniques, theory, fees, expectations etc. of therapy
    • Young clients may need parent to sign for informed consent
    • Should obtain child's assent
  6. Multi-Cultural Issues
    • Stereotypes intended to help you become more competent in understanding clients from these groups
    • Even if positive they are still stereotypes and people within the groups range far afield
    • Not not knowing anything about client's cultural background is a problem but group specific cultural values and behavior may increase stereotyping
  7. Male Violence
    • Not considered a problem inherent in male psychology
    • If man hits a stranger: we ask "Why is he so aggressive and hostile?"
    • If he goes home and hits his wife: we ask "Why does she stay with him?"
  8. Why do Group Differences matter?
    • Each person exists in a web of demands
    • Some are common human demands
    • Some are dictated by the mainstream culture where they live
    • Some are determined by the subcultures they belong to
    • Some may spring from unique personal attributes
  9. Unconscious
    Area of mental life that is outside of awareness and perception, yet still affects the way we think, feel, and behave
  10. Psychoanalytic Theory
    • Assumes all human behavior is determined by psychic energy and early childhood experiences
    • In order to make sense of a person's current behavior patterns, it is necessary to understand the behavior's roots in largely unconscious conflicts and motives
  11. Psychodynamic Theory
    • Contends that all behavior is ultimately dependent on the interaction of two fundamental human drives: Libidinal drives-Eros
    • Death drives-Thantos
  12. How have theories evolved?
    Psychodynamic schools have prevailed and have demonstrated a general move toward humanism
  13. Freud's Stages of Life
    • Oral (0-18mo): Exploration focused on mouth Fixation-too much talk, eating, dependency
    • Anal (18-36 mo): Pleasure focused on defication in conflict with social demands Fixation-stinginess and orderliness, or impulsivity and sloppiness
    • Phallic (3-6 yrs): Pleasure focused on genital area, resolved by id with same-sex parent Fixation-rebelliousness, sexual id problems
    • Latency (6yrs-puberty): Pleasure focused away from sexual toward play, school, & friendship
    • Genital (puberty onward): Pleasure again focused on genitals for the rest of life Mature sexual relationships and desire to reproduce, if other stages are successfully resolved
  14. Erikson's Stages of Life
    • First year: Trust vs Mistrust
    • Second year: Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt
    • 3-5 years: Initiative vs Guilt
    • 6 yrs-puberty: Industry vs Inferiority
    • Adolescence: Identity vs Role Confusion
    • Early Adulthood: Intimacy vs Isolation
    • Middle Age: Generativity vs Stagnation
    • Old Age: Integrity vs Despair
  15. Deterministic
    All events including human actions and choices are fully determined by preceding events - no free will
  16. Drives
    • sex & aggression/love & death
    • (are biological and inborn)
  17. Oedipal/Electra Complex
    Between the ages 3-6, children want the opposite-sex parent all to themselves and hate the same-sex parent for monopolizing their love object. Causes anxiety because children fear same-sex parent will find out about their wishes and punish them severely. In adjustment they id with same-sex parent so they can vicariously possess opposite-sex parent and experience less fear
  18. Id
    • Present at birth
    • Largely unconscious
    • Original system of personality and primary source of psychic energy and the seat of the instincts
    • Has no sense of time
    • Never matures
    • Is chaotic
    • Ruled by pleasure principal-relentlessly driving toward personal gratification
  19. Ego
    • Develops as the ind interacts with external world
    • Largely conscious
    • Acts as mediator between id and superego
    • Functions under reality principle-can't act out id urges but can't live up to superego. Logically and realistically plans appropriate ways to fulfill needs. Manages by setting up defense systems and adaptations
  20. Superego
    • Often seen as "the conscience"
    • Internalized civilization message from parents
    • Strives for perfection
    • Rewards through feelings of pride and self-love
    • Punishes through feelings of guilt and inferiority
  21. Anxiety
    • Realistic: occurs in face of actual threat
    • Neurotic: fear you won't be successful in taming id
    • Moral: fear that you are offending the standards of superego
  22. Defense Mechanisms
    Since the ego is in touch with reality it can unconsciously redefine reality to make it less threatening
  23. Rationalization
    Create a logical reason to explain a painful experience (failed a test because it was unfair, rather than facing the fact that you didn't study enough and you are disappointed
  24. Reaction Formation
    You act and speak in opposition to impulses you wish you didn't have (homophobia-reaction formation against own same-sex attraction)
  25. Repression
    You forget painful experiences and situations (unconsciously)
  26. Regression
    You behave as though you are at an earlier stage of development
  27. Collective Unconscious
    • Holds the experience of our species throughout history
    • Motivates us in certain directions
    • Explains cross-cultural and ancient phenomena such as universal appeal to certain types of stories

    Jung: Father of Analytical Psychology
  28. Archetypes
    Universal characters that make up part of our personalities
  29. Persona
    Mask we wear for the world to see
  30. Shadow
    Unacceptable urges and desires/darker self that is usually hidden from others
  31. Anima
    Represents feminine side of men
  32. Animus
    Represents male side of a woman
  33. Self
    Unifies all the others in a whole, healthy psyche - most important archetype
  34. Self-actualization
    Living up to our full potential as individuals and members of society
  35. Birth Order
    • The psychological make-up of the family as a whole affects the style of life established by each child
    • Personality characteristics assigned according to chronological place in family
    • Importance of psychological birth order
  36. Phenomenology
    • The world is the way you see it and interpret it
    • Any experience may have many interpretations
    • There are no two people who will draw the same conclusions from a similar experience
  37. Encouragement/Discouragement
    • Psychopathology equals discouragement - a feeling that oneself and the world aren't going to change, so why try?
    • Major goal of therapy is to encourage the client - they must feel that change is possible and worth the effort
    • Making the effort is what takes courage
  38. Basic Mistakes
    • As children we make up reasons and principles behind what we see and they are purely or partly fictional
    • These errors continue into adulthood as firm convictions about ourselves, others, and the world
    • They lie behind how we interpret experience and how we choose to behave
  39. Insight
    Superficial if it doesn't lead to a change in motivation and from there, a change in behavior
  40. Compensation
    Inventory strong points and skills and investigate what can be done with those
  41. Adler's beliefs about children's behavior
    (Like adults) is purposeful and can be understood by its function in the family/classroom constellation
  42. Dreikurs' belief about children's behavior
    • Children's misbehavior can be understood in terms of its motivation - attention seeking, need for power, desire for revenge, and inadequacy
    • Parents and teachers can identify children's motives by looking inside themselves for how they reacted emotionally to the child's bad behavior
  43. Humanistic Approach
    • Centers on humans and their values, capacities, and worth
    • Concerned with the interests, needs, and welfare of humans
    • Emphasis on positive and constructive side
    • Sees human nature as good, with inborn actualizing tendency that drives toward our highest potential &
    • An organismic valuing process that leads us to prize choices that are good for us and for the peace and harmony of humanity
  44. Innate Striving for Self-Actualization
    • We naturally move toward self-actualization
    • Our distinctive potentials struggle for expression
    • Capacities clamor to be used, and stop their clamor only when they are used sufficiently
  45. Core Conditions
    • 1. Two persons in psychological contact
    • 2. 1st (client) in state of incongruence being vulnerable or anxious
    • 3. 2nd (therapist) is congruent or integrated in the relationship
    • 4. Therapist experiences unconditional positive regard for client
    • 5. Therapist experiences an empathetic understanding of client
    • 6. The communication to the client of the therapist's empathic understanding and unconditional positive regard is achieved to a minimal degree
  46. Therapist Congruence
    • Therapist must present themselves as a person
    • The counselor's feelings, thoughts, and actions are not at odds, though not all thoughts and feelings are expressed
  47. Unconditional Positive Regard
    • Warm acceptance of each aspect of the client's experience as being part of that client
    • No conditions of acceptance
    • Shown by respect for client and
    • sympathetic rewording of what client has said and background verbalizations of "uh-huh" & "mmm-hmm"
  48. Locus of Evaluation
    • The place you value in terms of judging your actions and motivations, successes and failures
    • External: dominated by public opinion, family appraisal, and custom
    • Internal: you consider the values and beliefs of others respectfully without making them your own automatically
  49. Fully Functioning Person
    • Someone who possesses
    • An openness to experience
    • A trust in one's own experience
    • An internal locus of evaluation
    • A willingness to be in process
    • Has a sense of meaning or purpose in life, and not one merely accepted from outside authority
    • They accept and trust others rather than regarding them suspiciously
  50. The Self and Ideal Self
    • A large discrepancy between what we are and what we aspire to be is a signal of low self-acceptance
    • Q-sort: person sorts cards with self-descriptors into piles ranging from "Like Me" to "Not Like Me." Then client sorts cards as though they were ideal self
    • Found that clients' real selves became closer to their ideal selves during client-centered therapy
    • And their ideal selves moved slightly closer to their real selves
  51. Play Therapy
    • Children may not have words to discuss their inner lives or the abstract thinking to categorize their range of feelings
    • Provide psychologically safe place for open self-expression through toys
    • Through observing and interacting with child, the counselor can determine the child's worries, wishes, fears, desires, and developmental struggles
    • After child is comfortable, the counselor often reflects or summarizes the feelings they are nonverbally expressing
    • Ultimately counselor helps the child integrate therapy experiences into real life outside of sessions
  52. Turning Points in Life
    • We are confused and unsure about the best course of action
    • Humanistic counselor can help uncover client's true desires and inner sense of direction
  53. Social Activism
    • Carl Roger's belief in the goodness of human nature extended to world arenas in ways few other psychological theories ever have
    • Was an activist for social justice and world peace, giving workshops and lectures aimed at solving interracial and international tensions
  54. What do Existential Psychologists believe?
    That between specific problems and personality defects are always problems inherent to all human existence

    Kierkegaard and Nietzshe founded Existential Psychology
  55. Meaninglessness
    • Finding our purpose in life related to our values
    • Desire to see meaning in hardships life hands us
    • Must make our own life story
  56. Freedom
    • Can have some extent of freedom even in the most restrictive circumstances (Viktor Frankl)
    • Freedom of choice means taking personal responsibility for choices
  57. Isolation
    • We are ultimately alone
    • Loving relationships relieve our isolation
    • See loved one as whole being not object to relieve isolation - through I/Thou relationship
    • Some people unable to tolerate being alone and use others to avoid pain - through fusion
  58. Death
    • Cannot be escaped
    • Defend against the threat by belief in specialness and belief in the ultimate rescuer
    • Lessen anxiety by leading a meaningful life
    • Some find comfort in belief of afterlife
    • Death forces us to live life with zest and creativity
  59. 20th century existential psychologists' thought were influenced by 19th century existential philosophers
    • Common themes were emphasis on:
    • human emotions
    • importance of subjective experience
    • deep respect for individuality
    • belief in free will
    • importance of attempting to make sense out of life
    • freely acting upon interpretation of life's meaning
    • Aim for mobilizing choice, freedom, and responsibility toward a meaningful life
  60. Phenomenological Stance
    • See people's problems as characteristics of their whole response to existence as they see it
    • The same occurrence is different when perceived by different people
  61. Guilt as a Message
    • Sins of omission
    • Failure to live up to our potentialities
    • Dreadful feeling of creating a self-restricted life due to fear of unknown
    • Sign all is not well
    • Acts as guide to action, frequently being the feeling that brings people to therapy
  62. Existential Therapeutic Process
    • Does not progress in clear stages with identifiable transitions between them
    • Beginning Stage: understand client's four worlds of self, others, nature, and spirit
    • Middle Stage: identify meanings, purposes, and values; change attitudes accordingly; dissolve affect blocks
    • Closing Stage: acceptance of existential dilemmas and construction of ways to have an authentic life within existential limitations; insights transferred from therapy to outside life are evaluated
    • Goals: clients deal more effectively with fears and anxieties, make better use of their potentials
  63. Persistent Disorders
    • Problems that have lasted a long time and have taken over sufferer's life come from a conviction that the self is an object without will
    • Responses to meaninglessness, freedom (and accompanying responsibility), isolation, and death
    • Represent choices of security over growth, no matter how uncomfortable security is to maintain
    • Choices of external control - blaming things outside of self, instead of taking responsibility
Card Set
510 Midterm
Study guide for midterm