1. Adenocarcinoma
    Cancer in glandular tissue
  2. Anaphase
    The fourth stage of mitosis, beginning when sister chromatids separate from each other and ending when a complete set of daughter chromosomes have arrived at each of the two poles of the cell
  3. Anchorage dependence
    The requirement to divide, a cell must be attached to a solid surface
  4. Angiogenesis
    A physiological process involving the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels
  5. Asexual reproduction
    The creation of offspring by a single parent, without the participation of sperm and egg
  6. Autosomes
    A chromosome not directly involved in determining the sex of an organism; in mammals, for example, any chromosome other than X or Y
  7. Benign tumor
    An Abnormal mass of cells that remains at its original site in the body
  8. Binary fission
    A means of asexual reproduction in which a parent organism, often a single cell, divides into two individuals of about equal size
  9. Cancer cell
    A cell that is not subject to normal cell cycle control mechanisms and that will therefore divide continuously
  10. Carcinomas
    Cancer that originates in the coverings of the body, such as skin or lining of the intestinal tract
  11. Cell cycle
    An ordered sequence of events (including interphase and the mitotic phase that extends from the time a eukaryotic cell is first formed from a dividing parent cell until its own disjoin into two cells
  12. Cell cycle control system
    a cyclically operating set of proteins that triggers and coordinates events in the eukaryotic cell cycle
  13. Cell division
    The reproduction of a cell
  14. Cell plate
    A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis
  15. Centromere
    The region of a chromosome where two sister chromatids are joined and where spindle microtubules attach during mitosis and meiosis. The centromere divides at the onset of anaphase during mitosis and anaphase II during meiosis
  16. Centrosomes
    Material in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell that gives rise to microtubules; important in mitosis and meiosis; also called microtubule-organizing center
  17. Chromatin
    The combination of DNA and proteins that constitutes chromosomes; often used to refer to the diffuse, very extended form taken by the chromosomes when a eukaryotic cell is not dividing
  18. Chromosomes
    A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell and most visible during mitosis and meiosis; also, the main gene-carrying structure of a prokaryotic cell. Chromosomes consist of chromatin.
  19. Cleavage furrow
    The first sign of cytokinesis during cell division in an animal cell; a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate
  20. Cytokinesis
    The division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells. Cytokinesis usually occurs during telophase of mitosis, and mitosis and cytokinesis make up the mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle
  21. Density dependent inhibition
    The arrest of cell division that occurs when cells grown in a laboratory dish touch one another; generally due to an inadequate supply of growth factors
  22. Diploid
    A cell or an organism consisting of two sets of chromosomes: usually, one set from the mother and another set from the father. In a diploid state the haploid number is doubled, thus, this condition is also known as 2n
  23. Dysplasia
    Abnormality in maturation of cells within a tissue
  24. Fertilization
    The union of the nucleus of a sperm cell with the nucleus of an egg cell, producing a zygote
  25. Gamete
    A sex cell; a haploid egg or sperm. The union of two gametes of opposite sex (fertilization) produces a zygote
  26. Genome
    A complete (haploid) set of an organism's genes; an organism's genetic material
  27. Haploid cell
    In the life cycle of an organism that reproduces sexually, a cell containing a single set of chromosomes; an n cell
  28. Interphase
    The period in the eukaryotic cell cycle when the cell is not actually dividing
  29. Kinetochore
    A specialized protein structure at the centromere region on a sister chromatid. Spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochore during mitosis and meiosis
  30. Leukemia
    A cancer of the blood or bone marrow characterized by an abnormal proliferation of blood cells, usually leukocytes
  31. Lymphomas
    Cancer of the tissues that form white blood cells
  32. Malignant tumor
    An abnormal tissue mass that can spread into neighboring tissue and to other parts of the body; a cancerous tumor
  33. Meiosis
    In a sexually reproducing organism, the division of a single diploid nucleus into four haploid daughter nuclei. Meiosis and cytokinesis produce haploid gametes from diploid cells in the reproductive organs of the parents
  34. Metaphase
    The third stage of mitosis, during which all the cell's duplicated chromosomes are lined up at an imaginary plane equidistant between the poles of the mitotic spindle
  35. Microtubule
    The thickest of the three main kinds of fibers making up the cytoskeleton of a eukaryotic cell; a straight, hollow tube made of globular proteins called tubulins. Microtubules form the basis of the structure and movement of cilia and flagella
  36. Mitosis
    The division of a single nucleus into two genetically identical daughter nuclei. Mitosis and cytokinesis make up the mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle
  37. Mitotic phase (M phase)
    The part of the cell cycle when mitosis divides the nucleus and distributes its chromosomes to the daughter nuclei and cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm, producing two daughter cells
  38. Mitotic spindle
    A spindle-shaped structure formed of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis. (A spindle is shaped roughly like a football)
  39. Oncogenes
    A cancer causing gene; usually contributes to malignancy by abnormally enhancing the amount or activity of a growth factor made by a cell
  40. Prometaphase
    The second stage of mitosis, during which the nuclear envelope fragments and the spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of the sitter chromatids
  41. Prophase
    The first stage of mitosis, during which the chromatin condenses to form structures (sister chromatids) visible with a light microscope and the mitotic spindle begins to form, but the nucleus is still intact
  42. Proto-oncogenes
    A normal gene that can be converted to a cancer-causing gene
  43. Ras gene family
    Family of genes encoding small GTPases that are involved in cellular signal transduction. Activation of Ras signalling causes cell growth, differentiation and survival
  44. Sarcoma
    Cancer of the supportive tissues, such as bone, cartilage, and muscle
  45. Sexual reproduction
    The creation of offspring by the fusion of two haploid sex cells (gametes), forming a diploid zygote
  46. Sister chromatids
    One of the two identical parts of a duplicated chromosome in a eukaryotic cell
  47. Somatic cell
    Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell or a cell that develops into a sperm or egg
  48. Spindle apparatus
    The structure that separates the chromosomes into the daughter cells during cell division
  49. Telophase
    The fifth and final stage of mitosis, during which daughter nuclei form at the two poles of a cell. Telophase usually occurs together with cytokinesis
  50. Tumor
    An abnormal mass of cells that forms within otherwise normal tissue
  51. Tumor suppressor gene (P53)
    A gene whose product inhibits cell division, thereby preventing uncontrolled cell growth
  52. Zygote
    The fertilized egg, which is diploid, that results from the union of a spree, cell nucleus and an egg cell nucleus
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