1. motivation
    the arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior
  2. intrinsic reward
    the satisfaction received in the process of performing an action
  3. extrinsic reward
    a reward given by another person
  4. content theories
    a group of theories that emphasize the needs that motivate people
  5. hierarchy of needs theory
    a content theory that proposes that people are motivated by five categories of needs - physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization - that exist in a hierarchical order
  6. ERG Theory
    a modification of the needs hierarchy theory that proposes three categories of needs: existence, relatedness, and growth
  7. frustration-regression principle
    the idea that failure to meet a high-order need may cause a regression to an already satisfied lower-order need
  8. motivators
    factors that influence job satisfaction based on fulfillment of high-level needs such as achievement, recognition, responsibility, and opportunity for growth
  9. process theories
    a group of theories that explain how employees select behaviors with which to meet their needs and determmine whether their choices were sucessful
  10. goal-setting theory
    a motivation theory in which specific, challenging goals increase motivation and performance when the goals are accepted by subordinates and these subordinates receive feedback to indicate their progress toward goal achievement
  11. equity theory
    a process theory that focuses on individuals' perceptions of how fairly they are treated relative to others
  12. equity
    a situation that exists when the ration of one person's outcomes to inputs equals that of another's
  13. expectancy theory
    a process theory that proposes that motivation depends on individuals' expectations about their ability to perform tasks and receive desired rewards
  14. E ---> P expectancy
    expectancy that putting effort into a given task will lead to high performance
  15. P ---> O expectancy
    expectancy that successful performance of a task will lead to the desired outcome
  16. valence
    the value or attraction an individual has for an outcome
  17. behavior modification
    the set of techniques by which reinforcement theory is used to modify human behavior
  18. law of effect
    the assumption that positively reinforced behavior tends to be repeated, and negatively reinforced or unreinforced behavior tends to be inhibited
  19. reinforcement
    anything that causes a given behavior to be repeated or inhibited
  20. positive reinforcement
    the administration of a pleasant and rewarding consequence following a desired behavior
  21. avoidance learning
    the removal of an unpleasant consequence when an undesirable behavior is corrected
  22. punishment
    the imposition of an unpleasant outcome following undesirable behavior
  23. extinction
    the withdrawal of a positive reward
  24. job design
    the application of motivational theories to the structure of work for improving productivity and satisfaction
  25. job simplification
    a job design whose purpose is to improve task efficiency by reducing the number of tasks a single person must do
  26. job rotation
    a job design that systematically mobes employees from one job to another to provide them with variety and stimulation
  27. job enlargement
    a job design that combines a series of tasks into one nes, broader job to give employees variety and challenge
  28. job enrichment
    a job design that incorporates achievement, recognition, and other high-level motivators into the work
  29. work redesign
    the altering of jobs to increase both the quality of employees' work experience and their productivity
  30. job-characteristics model
    a model of job design that comprises core job dimensions, critical psychological states, and employee growth-need strength
  31. empowerment
    the delegation of power and authority to subordinates
  32. engagement
    a situation in which employees enjoy their work, contribute enthusiastically to meeting goals, and feel a sense of belonging and commitment to the organization
Card Set
Motivating Employees