Music History Exam 2 Words

  1. Alberti Bass
    Repeating arppeggiation of the chord in the bass
  2. Balla Opera
    • Popular opera in England
    • Songs borrowed from popular songs originally, then new music was composed
    • Established by Beggar's opera
    • Popularity peaked and remained in 1730s
    • Popular in England and America
  3. Baron Gottfied von Swieten
    wrote the German translations of Haydn's Creation
  4. baryton
    • Nikolaus Esterhazy's favorite instrument
    • much like a bass viola da gamba
    • w/ extra set of resonating strings that could be plucked like a harp
    • Haydn wrote a lot of chamber music for this instrument
  5. Bay Psalm Book
    • 1640
    • the first book published in North American, contained no music, just the words for the psalms for Calvinists. The ninth edition was the first to contain music.
  6. Binary form
  7. simple binary form
  8. balanced binary form
  9. rounded binary form
  10. classical style
    • 1730-1815
    • Periodicity
    • music as it is different from romantic music
    • associated with Mozart and Haydn
    • Slower harmonic movement, Alberti Bass
    • principles of rhetoric and grammar were applied to music
    • more emotions per piece, not just one affect per song
  11. The Continental Harmony
    Collection by Billings of psalms. Mostly plain tunes, homophonic 4-part harmonizations of new melodies. Some were fuguing tunes.
  12. Count Morzin
    • Haydn worked for him in 1757
    • composed his first symphonies for him
    • Early symphonies
    • two oboes, two horns, strings
    • 3 movements
  13. da capo aria
  14. empfindsam style
    • "sentimental" style
    • surprising turns of harmony, chromaticism, nervous rhythms
    • orginated from Vivaldi
  15. Enlightenment
    • •an intellectual movement that applied reason to issues of emotions, social relations, and politics.
    • observing, then calculating from that
    • role of state was to improve human condition
  16. Essercizi
    • Collection of 30 harpsichord sonatas. Typically in balanced binary form, but not galant style. Musical material spins out, like Vivaldi.
    • "exercises"
  17. Esterhaza
    • remote country estate where the Esterhazy family moved to in 1766
    • Haydn's isolation here helped him become original
  18. Esterhazy family
    • wealthy Hungarian noble family
    • Haydn worked for them for most of his career
    • composed music for them, conducted performances, trained musicians
    • Haydn early years with them 1761-67
    • added flute and bassoon to ensemble
    • diverse and novel works
  19. Faustina Bordoni
    • Hasse's wife
    • Cleofide was written for her
    • professional singer
  20. Frederick the Great
    • C.P.E. Bach worked for him from 1740-1768
    • of Prussia
    • first ruler that required primary school for every child. Supported music-played flute in concerts. Proposed the theme used in JS Bach’s A Musical Offering. Reigned 1740-1786.
  21. fortepiano
    18th century pianos
  22. fuguing tunes
    • Use imitation in the middle and unconventional voice-leading
    • homophony - imitation - homophony
  23. galant style
    • term for everything modern and stylish
    • short, singable phrases
    • frequent cadences
    • simplicity
  24. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    Literary figure who supported Rameau. Social reformer and philosopher of the Enlightenment. Praised Italian composer’s emphases on melody and their ability to express any emotion through melody in their operas. He wrote one little opera with airs and recitative inspired by the new style. Was on the Italian side during the Querelle des bouffons
  25. Johann Peter Salomon
    • Commissioned the twelve London Symphonies
    • Haydn's greatest symphonic achievements
  26. intermezzo
    • Mini opera buffa
    • parodying traditions and elements of serious opera
    • performed in 2 or 3 segments between acts of a serious opera/play
    • contrast sharply with the drama
    • incorporate bass voice
  27. Leonardo Vinci
    Pioneer of the new arias in galant style for comic operas-short tuneful phrases organized into periods that are repeated or varied and accompanied by simple harmonies and figuration. Many in da capo form.
  28. London Symphonies
    • 93-104
    • Commissioned by Johann Peter Salomon
    • Haydn's greatest symphonic acheivements
    • 1791-1794
    • Distinctive qualities
    • daring harmonies, intense rhythmic drive, memorable themes, expanded orchestra, woodwinds and brass are much more important
  29. Mannheim
    • One of the most prominent centers of symphonies in Europe
    • orchestra famous for its discipline and technique
  30. minuet and trio form
    • overall ABA, each section is binary
    • trio is same key, but maybe different mode
    • trio = lighter
    • shorter and more popular than the other movements of symphonies
  31. opera buffa
    • ●AKA dramma giocossa, dramma comico, and commedia per musica.
    • Italian comic opera
    • 6 or more stock characters
    • plots centered on and parodied common, everyday characters, both commoners and aristocrats
    • rapidly delivered recit w/ continuo
  32. opera comique
    • French comic opera
    • Used common tunes AKA vaudevilles
  33. opera seria
    • Comedy is slowly removed from serious opera
    • Maintained its character when performed in other countries
    • assimiliated the simple melodic style of opera buffa
    • Standard form set by Pietro Metastasio
    • alternates recit and aria
    • Master = Hasse
  34. Paris Symphonies
    comissioned for performance in the French capital. Were Haydn’s grandest so far at the time that they were written. Combination of popular and learned styles. Standard orchestra of flute, 2 oboes, 2 horns, and strings, sometimes with trumpets and timpani for augmentation
  35. periodicity
    • characterizes newer styles
    • frequent resting points break the melodic flow into segments that relate to each other as parts of a larger whole
  36. Pietro Metastasio
    Italian librettist. Worked at the German imperial court in Vienna. Set the standard form for opera seria. Conventional cast of 2 pairs of lovers surrounded by other characters. Action provides opportunities for pastoral or material episodes, solemn ceremonies, etc. Almost never have a tragic ending.
  37. Querelle des bouffons
    • Quarrel of the comic actors
    • Pamphlet war between merits of French and Italian opera
    • involved nearly every intellevtual in France
    • sparked by presence of Italian opera troupe in Paris that performed
  38. rondo form
    • common for last movements
    • principal theme = small binary
    • theme alternates with episodes, often in different keys
    • ABACADA...
  39. sinfonia
    • Italian opera overture
    • What inspired the name for the symphony
    • 3 mvmnt structure
    • allegro - short lyrical andante - dance rhythms w/ minuet or gigue
  40. Singspiel
    • German comic opera
    • first appeared in Vienna in the 1710's
    • "singing play"
    • spoken dialogue, musical numbers, comical plot
    • influenced strongly by English ballad
  41. slow-movement sonata form
    • sonata form without repeats
    • theme and variations
  42. sonata form
    • AKA first-movement form
    • Used to be seen in a two part structure, now in three parts
  43. exposition
    • First section of sonata form
    • Primary theme, Transition, MC, Secondary theme, EEC, Closing theme
  44. development
    • Second section of sonata form
    • Entry zone, central action zone, dominant lock/retransition
  45. recapitulation
    • re-entrance of the exposition
    • crux is when beginning material comes back after it goes away
  46. coda
    Ending material, often drawn from stuff from earlier
  47. String quartet
    • Master = Haydn, father
    • conversation between four instruments
  48. Sturm und Drang
    • Storm and stress
    • turn towards minor
    • Haydn, characteristic of 12 symphonies between 1768-1772
    • •Dynamic extremes, sudden contrasts, crescendos, and sforzandos are used to startling effect.
    • •Harmonies are richer and more varied.
  49. Surprise Symphony
    • symphony with a cymbol crash on a weak beat in the slow movement
    • Haydn wanted something novel and startling
  50. symphonie concertante
    concerto-like work with 2 or more solo instruments in addition to the regular orchestra
  51. theme and variations form
    Used in some slow movements. Presents a small binary form (or sometimes a single period) as a theme. This is then embellished into multiple variants.
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Music History Exam 2 Words
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