60's Terms

  1. A Quagmire!
  2. Robert McNamara
    The US Secretary of Defense during the battles in Vietnam. He was the architech for the Vietnam war and promptly resigned after the US lost badly.
  3. Green Berets
    The military branch created by President John Kennedy to be able to wage counter-insurgency campaigns better.
  4. Bay of Pigs Invasion
    Failed invasion of Cuba in 1961 when a force of 1,200 Cuban exiles, backed by the United States, landed at the Bay of Pigs.
  5. Berlin Wall
    A wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West, In 1961, the Soviet Union built a high barrier to seal off their sector of Berlin in order to stop the flow of refugees out of the Soviet zone of Germany. The wall was torn down in 1989.
  6. Cuban Missile Crisis
    An international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
  7. Alliance for Progress
    A program in which the United States tried to help Latin American countries overcome poverty and other problems.
  8. Limited Test Ban Treaty 1963
    Soviet Union, US, and 100 other nations signed this treaty to end the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere.
  9. General Nguyen Van Thieu
    Went on to become the President of South Vietnam (1965-75), first as the head of a military junta and then after winning a fraudulent election. He established an authoritarian rule over South Vietnam until he resigned and left the nation a few days before the fall of Saigon and the ultimate communist victory.
  10. Attrition Strategy
    The belief that the United States could inflict more damage on the enemy than the enemy could absorb. This strategy failed because the North Vietnamese were willing to commit many more soldiers and resources to the conflict than the United Stateshad predicted.
  11. Tonkin Gulf Resolution 1964
    Said the president of the US is now authorized to use any necessary means including armed force to aid S. Vietnam and prevent aggression. Expanded executive authority enormously.
  12. Operation Rolling Thunder
    Bombing campaign over North Vietnam, supposed to weaken enemy's ability and will to fight.
  13. Domino Theory
    The political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control.
  14. General William Westmoreland
    Was an American General who commanded American military operations in the Vietnam War at its peak from 1964 to 1968 and who served as US Army Chief of Staff from 1968 to 1972.
  15. Ho Chi Minh Trail
    A network of jungle paths winding from North Vietnam through Laos and Cambodia into South Vietnam, used as a military route by North Vietnam to supply the Vietcong during the Vietnam War.
  16. Grunts
    Name of the lowest rank in the covenant, Small, insignificant units of the Covenant military. Can use a variety of weapons and vehicles but are extremly vulnerable and cannot function without strong leadership.
  17. Search-and-Destroy [Zippo] mission
    A strategy used in Vietnam in which American forces sought Vietcong and North Vietnamese units to destroy them.
  18. Napalm
    Highly flammable chemical dropped from US planes in firebombing attacks during the Vietnam War.
  19. Agent Orange
    Chemical the U.S. used to destroy plant life in the jungle, but comtaminated drinking water and caused birth defects from those who were contaminated.
  20. My Lai Massacre 1968
    a massacre of hundreds of unarmed Vietnamese civilains by American soldiers during the Vietnam War.
  21. New Left
    New political movement of the late 1960s that called for radical changes to fight poverty and racism.
  22. SDS: Students for a Democratic Society
    Founded in 1962, the SDS was a popular college student organization that protested shortcomings in American life, notably racial injustice and the Vietnam War. It led thousands of campus protests before it split apart at the end of the 1960s.
  23. Port Huron Statement
    Manifesto of the Students for a Democratic Society, which criticized the federal government for racial inequality, poverty, and also the Cold War and international peace.
  24. Tom Hayden
    Set up the students for a Democratic Society SOS in 1960. This was a very liberal group. They set up the new left a political movement to change poverty & racism by radical means.
  25. Berkeley Free Speech Movement
    1964-1965 students insisted that the university administration lift a ban on on-campus political activities and acknowledge the students' right to free speech and academic freedom. Campus uprising started here.
  26. Counterculture
    A culture with lifestyles and values opposed to those of the established culture.
  27. Hippies
    A youth subculture (mostly from the middle class) originating in San Francisco in the 1960s. All about peace, anti-war, LSD, etc.
  28. Haight-Ashbury
    Haven for young people seeking an alternative to the straight world in 1965. Was located in San Francisco.
  29. Dr. Timothy Leary
    Leary also popularized the phrase "Turn on, tune in, drop out." Both proved to be hugely influential on the 1960s counterculture. Largely due to his influence in this field, he was attacked by conservative figures in the United States, and described as "the most dangerous man in America" by President Richard Nixon.
  30. Turn On, Tune In, Drop Out
    An album credited to Timothy Leary. It consists of a narrated meditation mixed with freeform psychedelic rock music.
  31. Woodstock '69
    • -1969 concert in upstate new york
    • -3 days of peace and music
    • -new style of being (Grateful Dead)
    • -sign of cultural face of the 60s
    • -a-political turning away, rebellion in lifestyle
  32. Young Americans for Freedom
    Conservative new right; youth organization critical of liberal public policy, gvt. economic involvement, changes in social mores, and containment foreign policy.
  33. AIM: American Indian Movement
    Led by Dennis Banks and Russell Means; purpose was to obtain equal rights for Native Americans; protested at the site of the Wounded Knee massacre.
  34. Indian Civil Rights Act 1968
    Basically stated that tribal governments must allow their citizens basic civil rights, rights included in the Bill of Rights.
  35. Dee Brown
    He was an American novelist and historian. His most famous work, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee (1970) details some of the violence and oppression suffered by Native Americans at the hands of American expansionism.
  36. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee
    A book written by Brown Indian's right to choose their own way of life.
  37. Marielitos
    Term applied to roughly 125,000 people who fled to the United States from the Cuban port of Mariel as part of the exodus of refugees in 1980.
  38. Brown Powder
    Phrase describing attempts by Hispanic Americans to use their growing numbers to improve their political and economic standing. Also known as the Chicano Movement.
  39. La Raza Unida
    Political party started by Jose Angel Gutierrez, worked for better housing and jobs, and also backed latino political candidates.
  40. Caesar Chavez
    20th Century Mexican American who devoted his life to improving conditions for migrant workers.
  41. Stonewall Riot
    New York city @ a bar called Stonewall Inn - Triggered activist protests among gays and lesbians - police raided gay bar - people fought back - became symbol of oppression of gays, began the gay pride movement.
  42. Gay Liberation Front
    Formed by gay men and women in New York City whose purpose was to prevent sexual roles and definitions of their nature, anti-Vietnamese war, support for Black Panthers.
  43. Betty Friedan
    United States feminist who founded a national organization for women (born in 1921).
  44. The Feminine Mystique
    Written by Betty Friedan, journalist and mother of three children; described the problems of middle-class American women and the fact that women were being denied equality with men; said that women were kept from reaching their full human capacities.
  45. NOW: National Organization of Women
    Feminist political group formed in 1967 to promote legislative change. NOW lobbied for the failed Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution.
  46. Kate Millett
    Author of "Sexual Politics", a book that energized the more radical elements in the wormens liberation movement with its confrontational messages about the male-dominated power structure in American society.
  47. Sexual Politics
    Book that said if women wanted to liberate themselves, it could not be done in a marriage; women believed this even though the book did not actually say that, battle for reproduction rights-- women should control her body.
  48. The Dialectic of Sex
    An important and widely influential feminist text; It became a classic text in second-wave feminism in the United States. Firestone argued that gender inequality originated in the patriarchal societal structures imposed upon women through their biology; the physical, social and psychological disadvantages imposed by pregnancy, childbirth, and subsequent parenting.
  49. Sandra Day O'Connor
    First woman supreme court justice who was appointed by Reagan.
  50. Geraldine Ferraro
    In 1984 she was the first woman to appear on a major-party presidential ticket. She was a congresswoman running for Vice President with Walter Modale.
  51. ERA: Equal Rights Movement
    Proposed the 27th Amendment, calling for equal rights for both sexes. Defeated in the House in 1972.
  52. Title IX 1972
    Renamed "Equal Oppourtunities Act"; disallowed gender discrimination in the education system, including academics and extracirricular.
  53. Rachel Carson
    United States biologist remembered for her opposition to the use of pesticides that were hazardous to wildlife (1907-1964)
  54. Silent Spring
    A book written to voice the concerns of environmentalists. Launched the environmentalist movement by pointing out the effects of civilization development.
  55. Earth Day
    A day created in 1970 about celebrating and caring for the Earth
  56. EPA: Environmental Protection Agency
    Established in 1970 to protect human health and our environment; monitoring and reducing air/water pollution, overseeing hazardous waste disposal and recycling.
  57. Clean Air Act 1970
    The law that charged the Department of Transportation with the responsibility to reduce automobile emissions.
  58. Clean Water Act 1971
    Law passed in 1972 that aimed to control pollution caused by the discharge of industrial and municipal wastewater, and provided for grants to build better sewage-treatment facilities.
  59. Chief Justice Earl Warren
    The man who said "separate is inequal," he also gave the majority vote. Accepted cases involving controversial issues, particularly civil rights and the rights of the accused.
  60. Tet Offensive 1968
    Series of Communist attacks on 44 South Vietnamese cities; although the Viet Cong suffered a major defeat, the attacks ended the American view that the war was winnable and destroyed the nation's will to escalate the war further.
  61. Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey
    Was now the sole Democrat with the credentials to succeed Johnson. His campaign "Politics of Joy."
  62. Senator Robert F. Kennedy
    Attorney General under his brother, JFK, he was assassinated in June 1968 while campaigning for the Democratic party nomination.
  63. Senator Eugene McCarthy
    A liberal Democratic Senator from Minnesota. He was a strong anti-war supporter and decided to challenge LBJ for the presidential nomination.
  64. James Earl Ray
    Convicted of killing Martin Luther King Jr. in 1968 and sentenced to 99 years in jail.
  65. Mayor Richard J. Daley
    Served for 21 years as the mayor and undisputed Democratic boss of Chicago and is considered by historians to be the "last of the big city bosses." He played a major role in the history of the Democratic Party, especially with his support of John F. Kennedy in 1960 and of Hubert Humphrey in 1968.
  66. The Chicago Seven
    Were seven defendants—Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, David Dellinger, Tom Hayden, Rennie Davis, John Froines, and Lee Weiner—charged with conspiracy, inciting to riot, and other charges related to protests that took place in Chicago, Illinois on the occasion of the 1968 Democratic National Convention. Bobby Seale, the eighth man charged, had his trial severed during the proceedings, lowering the number from eight to seven.
  67. Sirhan Sirhan
    Assassinated Robert Kennedy on June 6, 1968 in Chicago after hearing pro-Israeli remarks in his victory statement after having won the California primaries.
  68. Silent Majority
    That group of quiet honest hard-working middle class Americans who do their job, respect their country and support gov.; Nixon wants their votes in 1968 and 1972.
  69. Richard Milhaus Nixon
    Vice President under Eisenhower and 37th President of the United States; A member of the Republican Party, he was the only President to resign the office as well as the only person to be elected twice to both the Presidency and the Vice Presidency.
  70. Spiro T. Agnew
    VP under Nixon, resigned for extortion and bribery charges, Agnew was Nixon's vice-president but ultimately resigned due to financial charges. He helped Nixon gain votes from his moderate, immigrant, and Democratic state background.
  71. Southern Strategy
    Nixon's plan to persuade conservative southern white voters away from the Democratic party.
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60's Terms