Tox 1b

  1. Organophosphate
    • ex- malathion, diazinon
    • irreversibly inhibit AChase
    • excess ACh causes SLUDD, miosis
    • muscurinic- sm mm, exocrine gland, cranial nn, CNS
    • nicotinic- sk mm, CNS
    • tx- atropine (musc), glyco 10x dose, 2PAM (nic)
    • ddx: strychnine, 1080, garbage tox, lead tox, OP, carbamate
  2. Carbamate
    • ex- physostigmine, neostigmine, pyridostigmine, sevin
    • reversibly inhibit AChase
    • excess ACh causes SLUDD, miosis
    • ddx: strychnine, OP, carbamate, lead tox, garbage tox, 1080
  3. Rotenone
    • source- derris
    • GI and CNS signs
  4. Pyrethrum/Pyrethroid
    • source- chrysanthemum
    • inhibit GABA
    • tremors, mm twitch, aggression, salivation
    • tx- bath, support, diazepam
    • not safe in cats
  5. Limoline
    • source- citrus plants
    • ataxia, tremos, salivation
    • tox 5gm/kg
    • cats hypersensitive
  6. Strychnine
    • source- rodenticide, St. Ignathus bean
    • bitter taste, mm twitch, restless, convulsions, resp prob, body arches, death, pain
    • resp paralysis, full stomach, action of most powerful mm groups predominates
    • tx- pentobarb, support resp, dec sensory stimuli, gastric lavage, empty stomach
    • inhibit glycine, acts on Renshaw cells in spinal cord, no effect on brain
    • no vomiting
    • time of rest broken by slightest sound
    • ddx: Sodium fluoroacetate, lead tox, OP, carbamate, garbage tox
  7. Sodium fluoroacetate
    • ex-1080
    • source- coyote control, acacia georginae, oxylobium parviflorum
    • vomit, diarrhea, restless, convulsions, death in 2hr
    • tx- none, euthanasia
    • sub for acetate in acetyl CoA to get fluoro-acetyl CoA, then combine with citrate to get fluorocitrate, irreversibly combine with cis-acontitase
    • oderless, colorless, tasteless
    • ddx: strychnine, lead tox, OP, carbamate, garbage tox
  8. Anticoagulant Rodenticide-1st gen
    • ex- Warfarin, dicomarols, cyclocoumarols, indandiones
    • source- spoiled sweet clover
    • inhibits vit K epoxide reductase, inhibits coagulase proteins C&S, interfere with clotting factors II/VII/IX/X
    • blood will not clot, hemorrhage, CNS signs, SQ hematoma, lameness, hypovolemic shock, death
    • tx- gently, whole blood, vit K in fatty meal
  9. Anticoagulant rodenticide- 2nd gen
    • ex- brodifacoum, bromadiolone, difethialone, chlorophacinone
    • inhibits vit K epoxide reductase, inhibits coagulase proteins C&S, interfere with clotting factors II/VII/IX/X
    • blood will not clot, hemorrhage, CNS signs, SQ hematoma, lameness, hypovolemic shock, death
    • tx- longer than 1st gen bc longer half life
  10. phosporus
    • source- fireworks, full meat diets
    • GI irritation, vomitus smells like wet matches, death, icterus, convulsions
    • tx- empty stomach, activated charcoal, mineral oil (not veg oil)
    • white/yellow form is toxic, red nontoxic
  11. zinc phosphide
    • source- fumigant
    • bloody vomit, abdominal pain, ataxia, weakness, convulsions
    • phosphine gas in stomach is toxic (acetylene odor), pulm edema, fatty liver
    • tx- empty stomach, MgO to reduce acidity, activated charcoal
    • ddx: strychnine
  12. cholecalciferol (vit D3)
    • ex- 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol
    • source- solanum, nierembergia, cestrum, stenotaphrum, trisetum
    • mobilize Ca causing hypercalcemia
    • non-specific clinical signs
    • blood phosphorus inc, calciuria, heart stops in systole, calcification of tendons/vessels/kidney
    • tx- none, fluids, furosemide, corticosteroids, calcitonin
  13. bromethalin
    uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation
  14. thalium sulfate
    • source- pesticide
    • neuro, GI, motor paralysis, coma, death, lacrimation, hyperemic mucous membranes, scaly skin
    • skin, renal, hepatic, GI lesions
    • tx- Prussian Blue (ferric cyanoferrate), potassium chloride
    • pantropic- affects all tissues
    • odorless, colorless, tasteless, follows K
  15. Avicides- 4-AP, Avitol
    • 4- Aminopyridine, Avitol
    • source- mixed grain bait
    • horse- backing up, falling down, convulsions
    • cattle- head down, backing up, tremors
    • tx- symptomatic, tranquilizer
    • causes alarm rxn in birds, which avoid places with untoward behavior
  16. Avicide- Diazacholesterol
    • Ornitrol
    • interfere with repro
    • nontoxic
  17. Avicide- mesurol
  18. Avicide- cholalose
  19. Avicide- DRC 1339
  20. Avicide- queletox
  21. Diethyl Toluamide
    • ex- DEET
    • source- insect repellant
    • mild convulsions
    • tx- wash animal, diazepam
    • in juvenile female cats
  22. Amitraz
    • ex- Mitaban
    • source- parasiticide for dogs
    • alpha 2 agonist
    • hypotension, mydriasis, bradycardia, vasoconstriction, ataxia, vomit
    • tx- fluids, yohimbine
  23. Molluscicide
    • ex- Metaldehyde (M-acetaldehyde)
    • source- snail or slug killer
    • vomit (smells like acetaldehyde), incoordination, inc RR/HR, hypersalivation, cyanosis, hyperesthesia, convulsions, death
    • resp failure, cat- nystagmus, hyperemia of liver/lungs/kidney
    • tx- pentobarb, diazepam, tx resp dep, evacuate stomach
    • horses more sensitive
    • ddx: strychnine, 1080
  24. Methyl bromide
    • source- fungicide
    • CNS- inebriation, myocardial dep
  25. Phthalimide
    • ex- Captan, Folpet
    • source- fungicide
    • non-specific clinical signs
    • hydrothorax, ascites
  26. Carbamate Derivitives
    • source- fungicide
    • Does NOT inhibit AChase
  27. Uncoupling agents
    • ex- alpha DNP, PCP
    • source- fungicide
    • dissipates proton gradient in mitochondria, prevents ATP formation, excess O2 consumption, heat produced
    • rapid onset of rigor mortis
    • tx- ice packs, cold water enema, fluid therapy
  28. Phenoxy Derivatives of Fatty Acids
    • ex- 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, agent orange
    • source- brush control, plant growth regulators, ingest diluted form, high app rate
    • muscle rigidity, dep, rear limb weakness
    • undigested food in rumen, congested kidney, hyperemia and enlarged LN
  29. Amide compounds
    • ex- propanil
    • source- toxic under conditions of use, plant regulator
    • non-specific clinical signs
    • hemorrhage in GI, congested kidney and lung
  30. Urea compounds
    • non-specific clinical signs
    • congested tissues
  31. thiocarbamate compounds
    • muscle spasms, ataxia
    • congested tissues
    • Does NOT inhibit AChase
  32. triazines
    • ex- artrazine, simazine
    • source- toxic under conditions of use
    • muscle spasms, atatxia
    • congested tissues
  33. Bipyridyl compounds
    • ex- paraquat, diquat, morfamquat
    • source- defoliant for cotton
    • inhibit NADPH2, singlet O2 attacks unsat lipids
    • 20-30% remain and cause prob, hyperexcitability, incoordination, resp prob
    • later death= pulm congestion
    • chronic= pulm fibrosis
    • tx- unsuccessful, O2 will exacerbate dev of lung lesions
  34. Glyphosate
    • ex- roundup
    • nontoxic
  35. Sodium chlorate
    • source- desiccant herbicide
    • GI irritation, hemolysis, methemoglobinemia (Fe3+ will not carry O2)
    • brownish discoloration
    • tx- methylene blue (6mth withdrawal)
  36. Trifolium
    • subterranean clover- phytoestrogen
    • infertility
    • affects blood
Card Set
Tox 1b