In the Revolution, there was a shift from manufacturing goods by hand to manufacturing them by ______.
The economy went from relying on agriculture to ________. Provide a specific example of this.
People tried new things and invented new inventions rather than farming the "old way". Jethro Tull invented the plow and seed drill.
What were the following goods made into?
Fuel and building materials
Where did the Industrial Rev. start? Where did people move (within this country) when it began.
They moved to the east coast and center of England to get the raw materials.
Small areas shifted to areas of _________. Provide an example of how this happened.
National and international commerce.The Duke of Bridgewater built canals and roads that had tollbooths were established.
People went from spending their income on homes and luxuries to spending it on_______ (multiple things). Give some examples.
Transportation, education, factories, fencing their land, etc.
Enclosures of farms (that kept serfs from grazing their animals there) and the Society for Encouragement of Art, Manufacturing, and Commerce was established and had many publications that informed people of new inventions.
Farmers built __________ which led to the growth of few, large farmers. This also enabled them to experiment with different types of crops.
What benefits did rotation of crops and selection of animal traits have?
The land's fertility was preserved and only the best animals could breed and reproduce. There was more food and then better living conditions (for the middle class).
Why did industrialization happen in England?
They had the materials (water, coal, iron, etc.)
Rivers and harbors for transport
They had an expanding economy
Bank loans were used to finance investors
They had not had any homeland wars recently
(land, labor, capital)
Who invented the seed plow?
With what industry did the revolution start?
The textile industry.
Who invented the cotton gin?
Where were factories ususally built? Why?
In clusters near the streams used to power them.
What invention helped to spread the Revolution's ideas? How did it do so?
The steam engine. It was a cheap way to transport ideas/stuff and people could now live in the suburbs.
Who revolutionized the steam engine?
Who built the steam boat engine?:
Who improved British roads with a layer of stones for drainage and crushed rock? (this helped heavy wagons travel in the rain)
Who built the "Rocket" locomotive that connected Liverpool and Manchester.
What factors hampered industrial urbanization in cities?
A lack of development plans, sanitary codes, and building codes. Also, there was inadequate housing, education, and police protection.
Workers lived in the ______. Merchants and factory owners lived in the ________.
Which class had most of the wealth?
Why was the middle class not a prestigious as the upper class, even though some of them made as much money.
They made their money in the 'dirty' world of business.
What did the Luddites do? Who were they representing.
They held riots and destroyed machinery. They represented the working class that was being replaced by machines.
What were some of the Revolution's benefits?
More good production
Better living conditions (not for the working class at first)
How were young children and women treated in factories?
They worked long hours, were beaten, and endured dangerous conditions.
Name the conditions necessary for an Industrial Revolution. (They are discussed in detail in other questions)
Economy: Agriculture to Industrialization
Small areas to areas of national and international commerce
Spending income on homes/luxury to transportation, education, factories
High value on ability to do specialized jobs
Willingness to change
Give examples of people in England being more willing to accept change.
They built canals that altered the land formation and the population almost doubled in size from 1700 to 1800.
When society stopped placing much value on family history, on what did they place value?
Marketable skills (specialized jobs). In England, the classes were closely spaced, unlike the Caste system and the Estates of France.
"It's like a ladder!"
What event in US history started the shift from agricultural economy to industialization.
The Civil War
(also, engineers/inventors escaped from England [they were forbidden to leave] and spread ideas)
Explain how corporations work.
People buy stocks from entrepeneurs who run the companies. The corporations are then owned by the stockholders who either make or lose money.
Why was Belgium a good place to industrialize? (they were the first ones to do this after Britain)
They had many natural resources and waterways.
Germany was divided by political barriers in the 1800s. As a result _________________.
Industrialization appeared in certain areas only.
Compare Europe, Asia, and Africa after the Revolution.
Europe had all of the power, population, health, and wealth. Asia and Africa were left behind.
What is imperialism? What caused it?
It is when nations are conquered and colonized for raw materials. The Industrial Rev. caused it by widening the wealth gap between countries and encouraging competition in goods production.
What is Laissez Faire? Who adopted it?
It's when they left the economy to function on its own. The Philosophers (inspired by the Philosophes) used it.
What is Capitalism?
All factors of production are owned privately and the money is invested for profit. Capitalists said that the government did not need to help out poor workers.
Who wrote the Wealth of Nations?
Adam Smith (it's about free trade being good)
What is utilitarianism?
People should judge ideas based on their usefulness and the government should do things that benefit the largest number of people.
What is Socialism?
Human cooperation and the government's control on the economy can end poverty and promote equality. Factors of production are owned by the government and people work for the common good.
Who wrote the Communist Manifesto? What was it about?
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. The rich and poor were separated by the revolution, but eventually (after some revolting) everyone would join together in communism.
What are unions? What do they do? How were they outlawed in Britain?
They are groups that represent laborers' desires. They used strikes and collective bargaining to leverage better conditions, pay, etc.
The Combination acts of 1799 and 1800.
What were reform laws?
They were laws that improved working conditions and hours (especially for children and women) when Parliament and the US Gov't were finally forced to investigate poor working conditions.
How did farmers increase production while losing workers?