chapter 10 disease

  1. CNS
    central nervous system
  2. Sensory (afferent) Nerves
    carry impulses to the brain and spinal cord
  3. motor (efferent) nerves
    carry impulses from the CNS to organs that produce responses
  4. Autonomic nervous system
    nerves that function involuntarily or automatically
  5. Sympathetic nerves
    stimulate body in times of crisis
  6. parasympathetic nerves
    slow down heart rate, lower blood pressure, stimulate intestinal contractions
  7. neuron
    individual nerve cell
  8. dendrite
    branching fibers of the neuron
  9. synapse
    space between neurons
  10. neurotransmitter
    transfer impulse across synapse
  11. glial (neuroglial) cells
    help ward off infections
  12. CNS made up of
    Brain and spinal cord
  13. Peripheral Nervous system made up of
    Cranial nerves(12), Spinal nerves(31), Autonomic Nerves (Parasympathetic, Sympathetic)
  14. Cerebral Hemispheres
    Left and Right
  15. CSF
    cerebrospinal fluid protect spinal cord from shock.
  16. Cerebrum
    Thinking, Personality, Sensations, Movements, memory
  17. Thalamus
    Relay station ("triage center") for sensory impulses, control of awareness and conciousness
  18. Hypothalamus
    body temperature, sleep, appetite, emotions, control of the pituitary gland
  19. cerebellum
    coordination of voluntary movements and balance
  20. pons (brain stem)
    connection of nerves (to the eyes and face)
  21. Medulla oblongata (brain stem)
    nerve fibers cross over, contains center to regulate heart, blood vessels, and respiratory system
  22. cauda equina
    a fan of nerve fibers
  23. gray matter
    contain cell bodies and dendrites
  24. white matter
    contain nerve fiber tracts with myelin sheaths
  25. meninges
    three layers of connective tissue membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
  26. arachnoid membrane
    loosely attached to the other meninges by web like fibers
  27. pia mater
    third layer of meninges closest to the brain contains delicate connective tissue with rich supply of blood vessels
  28. paresthesia
    abnormal sensation
  29. quadriplegia
    paralysis of all four extremeties
  30. hydrocephalus
    abnormal accumulation of fluid (CSF) in the brain
  31. spina bifida
    congenital defects in the lumbar spinal column caused by inprefect union of vertebral parts
  32. spina bifida occulta
    posterio vertebrae have not fused. sign mole dimple patch of hair
  33. spina bifida cystica with meningocele
    external protruding sac contains meninges and CSF
  34. alzheimers disease
    brain disorder marked by gradual and progressive mental deterioration
  35. tonic clonic seizures
    sudden loss of conciousness, falling down, and then tonic contractions
  36. absence seizures
    momentary clouding of conciousness and loss of awarenes of the person's surroundings
  37. Huntington disease
    hereditary disorder marked by degenerative changes in the cerebrum leading to abrupt involuntary movements and menatal deterioration.
  38. Multiple Sclerosis
    destruction of the myelin sheath on neurons in the CNS and its replacemnt by plaques of sclerotic (hard) tissue
  39. Myasthenia gravis
    autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of vouluntary muscles.
  40. palsy
  41. bell palsy
    paralysis on one side of the face
  42. Parkinsons disease
    degeneration of neurons in the basal ganglia, occuring in later life and leading to tremors, weakness of muscles, and slowness of movement.
  43. tourette syndrome
    involuntary, spasmodic, twitching movements; uncontrollable vocal sounds; and inappropriate words
  44. herpes zoster (shingles)
    viral infection affecting peripheral nerves
  45. cerebral concussion
    temporary brain dysfunction clearing within 24 hours
  46. cerebral contusion
    bruising of brain as result of direct trauma to the head; persists longer than 24 hours
  47. CVA
    • cerebrovascular accident
    • thrombotic blood clot
    • embolic dislodged thrombus
    • hemorrhagic blood vessel raptures
  48. myelography
    x-ray imaging of the spinal canal
  49. electroencephalography (EEG)
    recording of the electrical activity of the brain
  50. LP
    lumbar puncture
  51. TIA
    transient Ischemic Attack
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chapter 10 disease