Ethics 3-28

  1. Ethics deals with what?
    The principles that guide human behavior. Study of norms and values.
  2. Three definitions of ethics:
    General pattern or way of life, set of rules of conduct or moral code, and inquiry about ways of life and rules of conduct.
  3. Four characteristics of morality and moral codes:
    beliefs about the nature of man, beliefs about ideals, rules laying down what ought to be done and not done, motives that incline us to choose the right or wrong course.
  4. Constraints that influence whether or not a decision maker does the right thing
    Organizational constraints and personal characteristics.
  5. Organizational constraints
    Reward system, organizational culture, and tone at the top.
  6. Archie Carroll's goals/responsibilities for businesses
    • 1. Profit
    • 2. Follow applicable laws (base level of behavior)
    • 3. Ethical responsibility
    • 4. Social responsibility
  7. Explanations for why individuals should be ethicals
    Religion, relationships with others, and perception of others.
  8. Self-interest versus selfishness
    Self-interest is an interest concerning the self, not interest in the self.
  9. Thomas Hobbes
    Self-interest motivates people to form peaceful civil societies. Peace means accepting rules that limit individual freedom. Enlightened self-interest.
  10. Adam Smith
    self-interest leads to economic cooperation. Free market and division of labor.
  11. Free Market
    Buyers and sellers are free to enter and exit the market place. Invisible hand results in a Pareto-optimum position, impossible to improve anyone's condition without worsening someone else's. Self-interest moves the marketplace.
  12. Utilitarianism philosophers
    John Locke, Jeremy Bentham, James Mill, John Stuart Mill
  13. Theological theories study what?
    Ethical behavior in terms of the results or consequences of ethical decisions.
  14. Utilitarianism
    Ethicality is assessed on the basis of non-ethical consequences, ethical decisions should be oriented towards increasing happiness or pain of the decision maker, the ethical decision maker must be impartial. Pleasure and pain are measured at the level of society.
  15. Epicurus
    Goal of life is secure and lasting pleasure, pain is only accepted if it leads to greater pleasure.
  16. Act Utilitarianism or Consequentialism
    An action is ethically good or correct if it will probably produce a greater balance of good over evil.
  17. Rule Utilitarianism
    Follow the rule that tends to produce the greatest amount of pleasure over pain for the greatest number of people.
  18. Niccolo Machiavelli
    Means & Ends
  19. Means & Ends
    Political not ethical theory. Assumes means and ends are ethically equivalent and there is only one means to achieving that end.
  20. Weaknesses of Utilitarianism
    Presupposes that happiness and pain can be measured, distribution and intensity of happiness, scope, minority rights may be violated. Ignores motivation and focuses only on consequences.
  21. Deontology
    Evaluates the ethicality of behavior based on the motivation of the decision-maker. Only when you act out of a sense of duty that you are acting ethically.
  22. Immanuel Kant
    The only unqualified good is a good will, the will to follow what reason dictates regardless of the consequences to oneself.
  23. Kant's Two Laws
    Categorical Imperative and Practical Imperative
  24. Categorical Imperative
    Only act in a manner such that you would be prepared to have anyone else who is in a similar situation act in a similar way.
  25. Practical Imperative
    Everyone must be treated equally under the moral law.
  26. Kantian Principle
    Everyone is entitled to pursue their own personal goals as long as they do not violate the practical imperative. Treat people as ends not means to an end.
  27. Deontology weaknesses
    No clear guidelines for deciding right and wrong. Consequences are irrelevant, only the intention of the decision maker matters.
  28. David Hume
    The need for justice occurs because: people are not always beneficent and there are scarce resources.
  29. Meaning of justice
    To render or allocate benefits and burdens based on rational reasons.
  30. Procedural Justice
    How justice is administered.
  31. Distributive Justice
    Allocation of justice
  32. Aristotle
    Equals should be treated equally and unequals unequally.
  33. Three criteria for determining just distribution:
    Need, arithmetic (cake), equality, and merit
  34. Weakness of distributive justice
    Allocation may not be fair
  35. John Rawls
    Theory of justice and fairness.
  36. Theory of Justice and Fairness
    No one can ever get all the things one wants. Need for everyone to cooperate.
  37. Difference Principle
    Social and economic inequalities should be of benefit to the least advantaged members of society. Natural endowments are undeserved.
  38. Fair equality of opportunity
    Access to inequalities should be open to all
  39. Virtue Ethics
    Inspired by Aristotle. Focuses on moral character of the decision maker and not the consequences or motivation.
  40. Aristotle
    Goal in life is happiness. Happiness as in activity of the soul.
  41. Advantage of virtue ethics
    Takes a broader view recognizing that the decision maker has a variety of character traits.
  42. Weaknesses of Virtue Ethics.
    Unable to compile an exhaustive list of virtues. Virtues may be situation specific. Many virtues may be contradictory.
  43. Apple iPhone - Utilitarianism
    Do nothing
  44. Apple iPhone - Deontology
    Offer a rebate. Could set a precedent.
  45. Apple iPhone - Justice and Fairness
    If single time customer then do nothing. If want repeat customers offer rebate.
Card Set
Ethics 3-28
Ethics Quiz