Test 2 Class Notes

  1. What goes on an agenda?
    • 1. The purpose
    • 2. Topics
    • 3. Lead person for each topic
    • 4. Time estimates for topics
    • 5. Warm ups
    • 6. Agenda review
    • 7. Meeting evaluation
  2. Guidelines for good Meetings
    • 1. Prepare
    • 2. Start on Time
    • 3. Who is doing what? (facilitator, time keeper, note taker)
    • 4. Improving the process�evaluation (what works what doesn�t)
  3. Facilitator
    Est. appropriate pace, bridge comments, manage participation
  4. Time keeper
    Move team along by keeping track of times allotted for topics, and warn team when time is almost up.
  5. Note taker
    Key topics, action items (who is assigned to what), what decisions were made Distributes minutes from the meeting to team members.
  6. Scribe
    Post ideas on flipchart as discussion unfolds so everyone can see. Helps the team stay focused on the discussion and prevents �team memory� from changing. Acknowledges and encourages participation. Capture issues that do not directly relate to the topic, but deserve future consideration, on an issues board or �parking lot.�
  7. Ways to evaluate meetings:
    • 1. Round-robin comments
    • 2. Written evaluations
    • 3. Open discussion
    • 4. Thumbs up, sideways, down
  8. Effective Discussions
    • 1. Prepare for the discussion
    • 2. Open the discussion
    • 3. Listen
    • 4. Clarification
    • 5. Manage participation
    • 6. Summarize
    • 7. Manage time
    • 8. Corral digressions
    • 9. Close the discussion
  9. How to Open a Discussion:
    • 1. State the topic
    • 2. Give background information
    • 3. Explain intended outcome
    • 4. Suggest methods for discussion (when appropriate)
    • 5. Start with an opening question
  10. Discussion Phases
    • 1. Exploratory
    • 2. Narrowing
    • 3. Defining
  11. Exploratory discussion phase
    Generates ideas. Brainstorming, nominal group technique part 1
  12. Narrowing discussion phase
    Affinity diagrams, multivoting, nominal group technique part2
  13. Defining phase
    Select the solution for ideas left. Prioritization Matrix, consensus, team leader chooses
  14. 4 rules of Brainstorming
    • 1. Criticism is forbidden
    • 2. Free thinking is encouraged
    • 3. Numerous ideas are sought
    • 4. Combine and build on the idea of others
  15. Problem with Brainstorming
    People wait their turn to share while others are speaking, which is detrimental to the process.
  16. Discussion Techniques
    • 1. Brainstorming
    • 2. Nominal group technique
    • 3. Affinity Diagram
    • 4. Multivoting
    • 5. Effort/Impact Grid
    • 6. Simple prioritization matrix
  17. Nominal group technique
    Can be used by a collection of people, not necessarily a team. Leader states problem, people write down solutions privately and then shared publicly and anonymously where the responses are written down collectively. Questions are allowed, but critique is not. Next, all the ideas are rank ordered. Addresses only one issue at a time
  18. Delphi Technique
    Uses a series of written surveys to make a decision. Requires large amounts of time
  19. Ringi Technique
    deals with conflict while avoiding face to face conflict. Document circulated among team members who make comments, edit the document and forward it to other team members. After completing a cycle, the document is re-written and then it re-circulates.
  20. What two methods use written techniques instead of verbal discussions?
    Delphi and Ringi
  21. Are decisions made using written techniques more or less accepted than with group decisions?
  22. Affinity diagram
    Used for creative vs. logical thinking
  23. Multivoting
    Team selects most important/popular items through a series of votes by cutting the list in half each round.
  24. Effort/Impact Grid
    • Level of impact of the option, level of effort needed to implement the option.
    • Low effort, high impact
    • Low effort, low impact
    • High effort, high impact
    • High effort, low impact
  25. Effective decisions
    • 1. Understand the context
    • 2. Determine who should be involved
    • 3. Choose a method
  26. What is consensus?
    • 1. Everyone understands the decision and can explain why it�s beset
    • 2. Everyone can live with the decision
  27. PAGE 3-26
  28. Steps to achieving consensus
    • 1. Discuss the issues
    • 2. Do a check
    • 3. If consensus has not been reached repeat steps 1 and 2
  29. Tips for successful consensus
    1. Listen carefully
  30. 2. Encourage all members to participate fully
    • 3. Seek out differences of opinion
    • 4. Search for alternatives that meet the goals of all members
    • 5. Avoid changing your mind only to avoid conflict
    • 6. Don�t just argue for your point of view
    • 7. Balance power
    • 8. Make sure there is enough time
    • 9. Check understanding
  31. Five elements of a thorough plan:
    • 1. Tasks and timelines
    • 2. Budget and resources
    • 3. Stakeholders
    • 4. Check and review
    • 5. Potential problem analysis
  32. Planning tools
    • 1. Planning grids
    • 2. Tree diagrams
    • 3. Gantt chart
    • 4. Process maps
  33. How to set up a planning grid
    • 1. ID what you want to accomplish
    • 2. ID the final step or task
    • 3. ID the starting point or first step
    • 4. Brainstorm a list of separate and distinct activities
    • 5. Organize and refine the brainstorm list
    • 6. Prepare the grid
    • 7. If necessary, revise
  34. What are team warm-ups?
    Ice breakers that facilitate self-disclosure, offsite team building activities. Done at the beginning of team formation.
  35. Brainwriting
  36. Starting your team
    • 1. Meeting roles
    • 2. Challenging the assignment
    • 3. Generating project ideas
    • 4. Project planning
    • 5. Project roles and ssignement
  37. CPM-Critical Path Management Chart
    Method of project scheduling in the initial phases of planning. It is used for mapping task time. (how independent tasks lay over each other)
  38. Free Slack
    Time the task can be delayed before it affects the next task that relies on it.
  39. Total slack
    • Time the task can be delayed before it affects the completion date of the project
    • Pert- Program evaluation and review technique Chart
    • O= optimistic time
    • R= realistic time
    • P=pessimistic time
  40. (O+4xR+P)/6
  41. When you experience problems on a project or in a process:
    • 1. Delays/breakdowns
    • 2. Mistakes
    • 3. Inefficiencies
    • 4. You add no value to the process. You do the opposite. The solution is to error-proof the process as much as possible.
  42. Scientific Approach
    Systemic way for individuals and teams to solve problems and improve processes by collecting and using data to guide your thinking.
  43. Operational definitions
    Precise definitions that tell how to get a numerical value for the characteristic you are trying to measure. You know precisely what to observe and how to measure it. You must reach an agreement as a team.
  44. Operational Definition steps
    • 1. ID what to measure
    • 2. ID how to measure it
    • 3. Help ensure that no matter who does the measuring the results are essentially the same.
  45. Tools for collecting data
    • 1. Check sheet
    • 2. Concentration Diagram
    • 3. Work-flow diagram
  46. Check sheet
    simple data collection form; has marks indicate how often something occurs
  47. concentration diagram
    see where problems cluster. Advantages: fast, pictoral Disadvantages: too much data will muddle the diagram
  48. work flow diagrams
    show flow or movement within a space
  49. stratification
    helps pinpoint a problem by uncovering where it does and does not occur. The oil change example (right) shows that location B changes oil in cars faster than locations A or C. Helps teams focus their efforts
  50. Tools for mapping processes
    • 1. Process Maps
    • 2. FMEA
  51. Types of Process Maps
    • 1. Basic and Detailed Process Maps
    • 2. Top down process maps
    • 3. Deployment process maps
    • 4. Opportunity process maps
  52. Detailed process maps
    Describe most or all of the steps in a process. The purpose or intended use will help decide which level of detail is most appropriate
  53. Top-down process map
    Show both the few major steps in a process and the next level of substeps
  54. Deployment process Maps
    Show both the flow of a process and which people or groups are involved at each step.
  55. Opportunity process maps
    Highlight opportunities for improvement by separating value-added steps from non-value added steps
  56. FMEA
    Failure Models and Effects Analysis; used to id potential process or product failures. High-risk areas can then be error proofed or improved before problems occur
  57. Tools for looking at data relationships
    • 1. Pareto charts
    • 2. Time plots
    • 3. Control charts
    • 4. Frequency plots
    • 5. Fishbone diagrams
    • 6. Scatter plots
  58. Pareto charts
    Help to focus improvement efforts by ranking problems or their causes
  59. Time plots
    A graph of data points plotted in time order. Used to examine data for trends or other patterns that occur over time. Used when making long-lasting improvements. Also help identify whether the variation in a process is due to common or special causes.
  60. Control charts
    Used to monitor a process to see whether it is in statistical control. The UCL and LCL (upper and lower control limits, respectively) indicate how much variation is typical. Points that fall outside the limits or into particular patterns indiddcdate the presence of a special cause of variation a cause that deserves investigation
  61. Frequency plots
    Show the shape or distribution of the data by showing how often different values occur. Also called histograms. Usually the data falls into a bellcurve.
  62. Fishbone diagram or Cause and effect diagrams
    Organize potential causes of problems into chains of cause-and-effect relationships.
  63. Scatter plots
    Display the relationship between two characteristics
  64. Common scatter plots patterns
    • 1. No relationship
    • 2. Positive relationship
    • 3. Negative relationship
  65. 7 step method
    • 1. Project- define the purpose and scope
    • 2. Current situation- focus your effort
    • 3. Cause analysis- look for root causes
    • 4. Solutions- analyze, select, and test small
    • 5. Results- goals met? Evaluate execution
    • 6. Standardization- control and monitor
    • 7. Future plans- continuous improvement
  66. 7 step method
    Scientific approach that involves collecting data and testing theories
  67. Step 1: project
    • Goal- Define the project�s purpose and scope
    • Output- statement of the intended improvement
  68. Step 2: current situation
    • Goal-focus improvement effort
    • Output-focused problem statement and baseline performance
  69. Step 3: Cause Analysis
    • Goal: ID root causes
    • Output: tested and confirmed theory
  70. Step 4: solutions
    • Goal: develop, test or pilot and implement solutions that address root causes
    • Output: planned tested actions that reduce causes
  71. Step 5: results
    • Goal: use data to evaluate the solutions and plans used to carry them out
    • Output: data shows how well goals were met and the plan was followed
  72. Step 6 standardization
    • Goal: to maintain the gains by implementing the new work methods or processes consistently throughout the organization
    • Output:
  73. Problem statement
    Describe what is wrong WITHOUT including theories about causes or possible situations. (symptoms)
  74. Six-word system
    What, why, when, how, where, who
  75. Six Sigma
    • Originated to improve manufacturing processes and eliminate errors
    • Continuous efforts to achieve stable and predictable process results are of viatl importance to business success.
  76. What sets Six Sigma apart?
    • A clear focus on achieving measurable and quantifiable financial returns from any Six Sigma Project, increased emphasis on strong and passionate management leadership and support, a special infrastructure of �champions, master black belts, black belts, green belts� etc. to lead and implement the Six sigma approach, a clear commitment to making decisions on the vasis of verifiable data, rather than assumptions and guesswork
    • Six Sigma users: GE, Honeywell, Motorola,
  77. 3 Main criticisms against six sigma
    • 1. Lack of originality- not a new idea
    • 2. Role of consultants- people with rudimentary understanding claim their experts
    • 3. Potential negative effective
  78. Defect
    Any process output that does not meet customer expectations
  79. Both Six Sigma and DMAIC focus on outputs
  80. DPMP
    Defects per Million Opportunities (3.4 defects per million opportunities)
  81. DMAIC
    Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control
  82. Force Field Analysis
    Examines the relation between driving and restraining forces for change. Increase the driving forces, reduce the restraining forces.
  83. 3 Stages of Team writing
    • 1. Defining & outlining
    • 2. Writing the sections
    • 3. Reviewing, editing and proofreading- everyone should edit
  84. Weak editor
    • Watch for: gaps between sections
    • Overlap of sections; repetition
    • Terminology incompatibility
    • Language and style differences
  85. Strong team editor
    Central editor controls the process. Team members submit drafts to a central editor who finishes drafts and puts the paper together. Easier to read
Card Set
Test 2 Class Notes
test 2 class notes