The highly regulated interplay among lymphocytes, body cells and foreing substances generates an immune response that provides extraordinary protection against many pathogens. When __, __ or __ disrupt this delicate balance, the effects are frequently severe and sometiems life threatening.
Allergies are exaggerated (hypersensitvive) responses to certain antigens called __. Most common allergies involve antibodies of the __ class.
- __ causes dilation and increased permeability of small blood vessels. Such vascular changes lead to typical allergy symptons: sneezing, runny nose, tearing eyes, and smooth muscle contractions that can result in breathing difficulty. Drugs called __ diminish allergy symptoms and inflammation by blocking receptors for __.
An acute alleergic response sometimes leads to __, a whole-body lfife-threatening reaction that can occur within seconds of exposure to an allergen. __ develops when widespread mast cell degranulation triggers abrupt dilation of peripheral blood vessels, causing a preciptious drop in blood pressure. Beath may occur within minutes.
anaphylactic shock x2
In some, the immune system turns against part molecules of the body, causing an __. This loss of self-tolerance can take many forms.
In __, commonly called __, the immune system generates antibodies against histones and DNA released by the normal breakdown of body cells. These self reactive antibodies cause skin rashes, fever, arthritis, and kidney dysfunction. Another antibody-mediated autoimmune disease, __ leads to damage and painful inflammation of the cartilage and bone of joints.
systemic lupus erythematosus
In __, the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas are the targets of autoimmune cytotoxic T cells. The most common chronic neurological disorder in developed countries is an autoimmune disease- __. In this disease, T cells inflitrate the centran nervous system, leading to destruction of the myelin sheath that surrounds parts of many neurons.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus
True or False:
Gender, genetics and environment do not influence susceptibility to autoimmune disorders.