chap 15 (part 2)

  1. what are agranulocytes? what are the 3 types?
    • Granules are not easily seen
    • monocytes
    • macrophages
    • lymphocytes
  2. Tell me everything you know about monocytes
    • derived from bone marrow cells
    • guided to site of tissue damage by chemotaxis
    • only small # circulates in the blood (circulate in a nonphagocytic form, # increase during infection)
    • differentiate into powerful phagocytic macrophages at the site
  3. Tell me everything ou know about macrophages
    • responsible for the phagocytosis of bacteria, fungi, parasites
    • also attack tumor cells & normal cells that are functioning abnormally
    • remove tumor cells, virus-infected cells and normal cells that have underone apoptosis
    • they aid in wound healing, tissure, repair, and bone remodeling
  4. common feautes of macrophages
    • located adjacdnt to basement membranes of epithelial & endothelial cells
    • contain high levels of enzymes
    • adhere to plastic
    • high levels of phagocytic & endocytic activty
    • contain surface receptor for complement, toll-like receptors & regulatory receptors
  5. monocytes/macrophages-what is their relationship? where are they found?
    • macrophages come from monocytes
    • macrophages are the most dangerous form
    • monocytes are relesed from bone marrow into the blood within 24 hours of maturation
  6. names of macrophages throughtout body
    • brain= microgial cells
    • liver= kupffer cells
    • lymph nodes= macrophages
    • blood= monocytes
    • joints= macrophages
    • epidermis= dendritic cells
    • kidneys= macrophages
    • sinuses of spleen= macrophages
    • lungs= aveolar marcophages
  7. tell me all you know about cytokines
    • they are chemical mediators
    • released by a variety of cell types (released in response to stimuli associated w/ infection)
    • induce innate immune responses
    • affect the cells that produce them and other cells
  8. All cytokines have the same defining chacteristics. what are these chacteristics?
    • secreted from WBCs
    • regulate inflammatory and immune responses
    • react w/ specific receptors on target cells (alter activity of those cells)
    • have overlapping functions (induc/inhibit effects of other cytokines)
    • activity is concertation dependent
  9. what is the role of mast cells? where are they found?
    • also known as "sentinel cells"
    • derived from stem cells in bone marrow
    • responsible for allergic responses and parasitic infections
    • found throught the body, but most commonly in tissues that are exposed to the external enviroment like the skin, respiratory trat and digestive tract
  10. what are the 3 distinct properties of mast cells.
    • rapid and selective production of mediators
    • enhancement or recruitment of effector cells
    • influence the adaptive immune response
  11. dendritic cells- what is their purpose and where are they found?
    • regulate both the innate and adaptive immune response
    • have long membranous extensions produced continually in the bone marrow
  12. tell me all you know about natural killer cells (NKC)
    • kill tumor cells, virus infected cells, bacteria, fungi and parasites
    • found in peripheral tissue & blood
    • different types found in different tissues
    • derived from bone marrow stem cells
    • use margination and diapedesis to leave the blood
    • 1) stimulate IL-12 production
    • 2)stimulate IFN-gamma production
    • 3)stimulates proliferation
  13. what are the steps in phagocytosis?
    • chemotaxis
    • adherence
    • ingestion
    • digestion of the pathogen
    • excretion
  14. about of phagocytosis, other than the steps!
    • phagocytosis is the cellular mechanism of the innate response
    • it is primarily carried out by: neutrophils and macrophages
    • both are attracted to site of tissue destruction by chemotaxis (neutrophils arrive 1st and then monocytes- differentiate into macrophages as they arrive
  15. what is the goal of inflammation? four symptoms?
    • The normal phsyiological response to trauma
    • helps destroy pathogens
    • involved in tissue repair and replacement
    • 4 symptoms:
    • redness
    • pain
    • heat
    • swelling
  16. what is the goal of fever?
    • fever is a systemic rise in body temperature
    • clinically- oral temp above 37.8 C, rectal 38.4 C
    • caused by 2 types of pyrogen:
    • exogenous- produced by invading pathogens
    • endogenous- produced by the host (Interleukin-1 IL-1)
    • unchecked fever can be dangerous
    • -causes denaturation of proteins
    • -inhibits CNS function
    • -Causes dehydration & electrolyte imbalance
    • -In extreme cases it can lead to coma
    • antipyretics are used to prevent temp from rising too high
  17. what is the goal of the complement system?
    • Major function is lysis of the bacterial cell wall or viral envelope (accomplished through the membrane attack complex)
    • about 30 serum proteins are involved
  18. what is pyronen?
    chemicals that induce a fever response
  19. tell me everything you know about inerferon
    • production of them is a host response to a viral infection
    • produced by and released from virus-infected cells
    • -moves to uninfected neighboring cells
    • -causes them to produce antiviral proteins
    • -makes uninfected cells resistant to infection
  20. what is the source, stimulation and effects of alpha interferon
    • source= leukocytes
    • stimulated by= viruse infection
    • effects= stimulates production of antiviral proteins in uninfected cells
  21. what is the source, stimulation and effects of beta interferon
    • source= fibroblasts
    • stimulated by= virus infection
    • effects= same as those seen with alpha
  22. what is the source, stimulation and effects of gamma interferon
    • source= T lymphocytes and NKC
    • stimulated by= virus infection and antigenic stiumulation
    • effects= kills infected cells and activates destruction of tumors
  23. explain the interferon figure 15.23
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chap 15 (part 2)
chap 15 (part 2)