Bio Lecture Ch 41 Vocab

  1. Hormones
    • a chemical signal produced in minute amounts in one site
    • then transported to another site to act on a target cells
  2. Endocrine System
    a body system that includes a variety of cells that produce / release hormonal chemical signals into the extracellular fluid
  3. Endocrine Cells
    cells that secrete chemical signals
  4. Target Cells
    a cell with the appropriate receptors to bind and respond to a particular hormone or other chemical mediator
  5. paracrines
    a chemical signal that acts locally near the site of excretion
  6. Autocrines
    a chemical signal that binds to / affects the cellthat makes it
  7. Endocrine Gland
    an aggregation of secretory cells that secrete hormones in the blood
  8. Exocrine Gland
    any gland the secretes to the outside of the body
  9. Neurotransmitters
    • a substance produced and released by a neuron
    • diffuses across a synapse and excites / inhibits another cell
  10. Neurohormones
    • a chemical signal
    • produced / released by neurons
    • acts as a hormone
  11. Pheromones
    a chemical substance used in communication between organisms of the same species
  12. Juvenile Hormones
    a hormone that maintains growth and prevents maturation
  13. Fight-or-flight response
    • a rapid physiological response to a sudden threat
    • mediated by epinephrin
  14. Types of chemical hormones (3)
    • -peptides / proteins
    • -Steroid hormones
    • -amine hormones
  15. Hypothalamus
    a gland that coordinates water balance, reproduction, temperature regulation, and metabolism
  16. Pituitary
    • a small gland attached to the base of the brain
    • its hormones control the activities of other glands
  17. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
    • a hormone that promotes water reabsorption by the kidneys
    • produced by neurons in the hypothalamus
    • released by nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary
  18. Oxytocin
    • a hormone released by the posterior pituitary
    • promotes social bonding
  19. Anterior Pituitary
    the portion of the pituitary gland that produces tropic hormones
  20. Tropic Hormones
    • hormones produced by the anterior pituitary
    • control the secretion of hormones by other endocrine glands
  21. Growth Hormone (GH)
    • a peptide hormone released by the anterior pituitary
    • stimulates many anabolic processes
  22. Endorphins
    molecules in the brain that act as neurotransmitters in pathways that control pain
  23. Enkephalins
    molecules in the brain that act as neurotransmitters in pathways that control pain
  24. Portal Blood Vessels
    vessels that bridge the gap between the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary
  25. Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormones (TRH)
    • a hormone produced by the hypothalamus
    • stimulates the anterior pituitary to release thyrotropin
  26. Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone (GnRH)
    • a hormone produced by the hypothalamus
    • stimulates the anterior pituitary to release gonadotropin
  27. Hypothalamic Hormones that control the anterior pituitary gland function (6)
    • -Thyroid Releasing Hormone (TRH)
    • -Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone
    • -Prolactin-releasing / release-inhibiting hormones
    • -Growth hormone releasing hormone
    • -Growth hormone release-inhibiting hormone (somatostatin)
    • -Corticotropin releasing hormone
  28. Thyroid Gland
    • a 2 lobed gland
    • produces thyroxin
  29. Thyroxin
    • a hormone produced by the thyroid gland
    • controls many metabolic processes
  30. Thyroglobulin
    a glycoprotein which the follicle cells synthesis into tyrosine residue
  31. Thyrotropin (Thyroid-stimulating Hormone)
    • a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary
    • stimulates the thyroid gland to produce / release thyroxin
  32. Hyperthyroidism
    • forms a goiter
    • excess production of thyroxin
  33. Hypothyroidism
    • forms a goiter
    • thyroxine deficiency
  34. Methods for changing blood calcium levels
    • deposition / absorption of bone
    • excretion / retention of calcium in the kidneys
    • absorption of calcium from the digestive tract
  35. Calcitonin
    • hormone produced by the thyroid gland
    • lowers blood calcium and promotes bone formation
  36. parathyroid glands
    • four glands on the posterior of the thyroid
    • produces and releases parathyroid hormones
  37. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
    • a hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands
    • stimulates osteoclast activity
    • raises blood calcium levels
  38. Vitamin D
    • not a vitamin
    • can be synthesized (in skin cells)
    • a hormone
  39. Pancreas
    • a gland located near the stomach
    • secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine
    • releases insulin into the bloodstream
  40. Insulin
    a hormone synthesized in the Islet cells of the pancreas that promote the conversion of glucose into glycogen
  41. Islets of Langerhans
    clusters of hormone-producing cells in the pancreas
  42. The types of cells in the Islets of Langerhans (3)
    • Beta cells (produces / secrete insulin)
    • Alpha cells (produces / secretes glucagon)
    • Delta Cells (produces / secretes somatostatin)
  43. Glucagon
    • a hormone produced by the alpha cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans
    • stimulates the liver to break down glycogen and release glucose into the circulatory system
  44. Somatostatin
    • a peptide hormone made in the hypothalamus
    • inhibits the release of other hormones from the pituitary and intestine
  45. Adrenal gland
    • an endocrine gland located near the kidneys
    • has two parts (cortex and medulla)
  46. Adrenal Medulla
    • the core of the adrenal gland
    • produces epinephrine and norepinephrine
    • under control of the nervous system
  47. Medulla Hormones (2)
    • Epinephrine
    • norepinephrine
  48. Adrenal Cortex
    • surrounds the medulla
    • produces steroid hormones
    • this is under hormonal control
  49. Corticosteroids
    steroid hormones produced and released by the cortex of the adrenal gland
  50. Classes of corticosteroids
    • -Glucocorticoids
    • -Sex Steroids
    • -Mineralocorticoids
  51. Aldosterone
    • a steroid hormone produced in the adrenal cortex
    • promotes secretion of potassium and reabsorption of sodium in the kidney
  52. Cortisol
    a corticosteroid that mediates stress response
  53. Corticotropin
    • a tropic hormone produced by the anterior pituitary
    • stimulates the release of cortisol from the adrenal cortex
  54. Corticotropin-releasing hormone
    • a releasing hormone produced by the hypothalamus
    • controls the release of cortisol from the anterior pituitary
  55. gonads
    • an organ the produces gametes in animals
    • can either be an ovary or testis
  56. androgens
    a male steroid
  57. Estrogen / Progesterone
    • a type of steroid sex hormone
    • produced by the ovaries
  58. Puberty
    • the time a sexual maturation
    • sex steroids have a dramatic effect on this time
  59. Luteinizing Hormone / follicle-stimulating hormone
    • a gonadotropin
    • produced by the anterior pituitary
  60. Gonadotropin
    • a type of tropic hormone
    • stimulates the gonads
  61. Pineal gland
    • a gland located between the cerebral hemispheres
    • secretes melatonin
  62. Melatonin
    • a hormone released by the pineal gland
    • involved in photoperiodicity and circadian rhythm
  63. Photoperiodicity
    Control of an organism's physiological or behavioral responses by the length of the day or night
  64. Immunoassay
    the use of antibodies to measure the concentration of an antigen in a sample
  65. Affinity Chromatography
    a technique used to locate receptors to hormones
  66. Downregulation
    A negative feedback process in which continuous high concentrations of a hormone can decrease the number of its receptors
  67. Upregulation
    The process by which the abundance of receptors for a hormone increases when hormone secretion is suppressed
Card Set
Bio Lecture Ch 41 Vocab
Ch 41 "Animal Hormones"