Abnormal ballooning of an artery due to a weakened arterial wall
Name of the lymphatic structures in the intestinal villa that pick up lipoproteins and deliver them to the blood
Term referring to blood flowing in layers through the arteries
Temporary reversible lack of blood and oxygen to the brain that causes dizziness
TIA (Trans Ischemia Attack)
A term referring to the diastolic pressure plus 1/3 of the difference between the systolic and diastolic pressure is
MAP (Mean Arterial Pressure)
Term referring to vessels converging
Sounds used to determine blood pressure with the use of a blood pressure cuff are called
A stroke is also known as a
CVA (Cerebral Vascular Accident)
Shock due to the loss of blood volume is called
Nerve receptors located in large arteries above the heart that monitor blood pressure for negative feedback
Term referring to the difference between systolic and diastolic pressures is
Sounds heard in arteries away from the heart that may indicate atherosclerosis
If tissue isn’t receiving enough blood the tissue is ________________ causing hypoxia
An important nutrient that is reduced by Statin drugs that helps prevents atherosclerosis and reduces blood pressure
This is not an important nutrient for the thyroid
This is not a lymphatic tissue
True or False
Chemo receptors in the aortic arch and the carotid arteries are monitoring oxygen levels in the blood
True or False
Following the flow of the lymph we could say that the lymph vessels bifurcate
True or False
The normal heart sounds created at the heart valves is made by the valves closing shut
True or False
Adenoids are also known as the palatine tonsils
If a person has a blood pressure of 140/80 what is their MAP.
are substances that provoke a specific immune response from the body. This would be bacteria, virus, fungus, protozoa, worms, and pollen. They are
generally a large protein molecule or a polysaccharide molecule. They have to be 10,000 or more in molecular
antigen marker is what keeps the immunity game fair
than 10,000 weight then on their own they cannot create a molecular immune response which is referred to as haptens
are small molecules that elicit an immune response only when attached to a larger carrier such as protein. Penicillin is an example
is the body’s ability to keep us free from disease by properly reacting to antigens. Their levels have different
is an overwhelming infection of a foreign agent (antigen) or failure of the immune system to act properly or efficiently
are something that we produce in a response to an antigen. They are proteins produced by the body in
response to an antigen and are referred to as immunol globulins and there are 5 types the body produces
that help the WBC do their job: GMADE
is being exposed to disease or antigen themselves; like
the measles or chicken pox. This would be an immunity that we actively acquired.
Natural Active Acquired Immunity
is the immunity acquired from a vaccine. The vaccine makes it artificial
Artificial Active Immunity
has been acquired in a natural way by receiving antibodies that will fight the bug. An example would be breast milk or thru the placenta while developing
Natural Passive Immunity
Artificial Acquired Passive Immunity
is blood derived fluid containing antibodies
are the majority of the antibodies floating in the blood (about 80%). They help neutralize toxins in the blood and enhance phagocytosis helping WBC’s do their job
first produced in response to an infection initially and found in the mother’s milk.
are on the mucosal surface of the body and are found in your saliva, and tears
are found mostly in the blood and found in mother’s milk
are involved with allergic reaction. They bind to the basophiles and mast cells causing them to release histamine
is the first nutrition a animal or baby receives when it is born, it is produced before milk. It is loaded with antibodies in hopes of jump starting the infant with an immune system
which is also known as Humeral Immunity and involves the B cells that come from B lymphocytes or WBC. This process of producing antibodies starts when a B cell or lymphocyte is exposed to an extracellular antigen. B cells are produced in the red bone marrow and majority mature there from here they migrate to lymph tissue and organs. They stay inactive until they come in contact with an antigen. The B cell then divides many times into clones called plasma cells. (Artwork on the board) Some lymph tissue would be tonsils, appendix, lymph nodes, peyer’s patches (inside the small intestine), spleen (white pulp).
Antibody Medicated Immunity
are produced in the red bone marrow and majority mature there from here they migrate to lymph tissue and organs
The B cell then divides many times into clones called_____________. These cells live only a couple of days but each cell produces approximately 2000 antibodies per second. Once antibodies are released
from the cell they will go attach to the antigen or the antigenic determine site (ADS) making it possible for several things that could happen: Agglutination, Opsonization, Neutralization, Compliment System, Titer
would be tonsils, appendix, lymph nodes, peyer’s patches (inside the small intestine), spleen (white pulp).
differentiate into 2 types (by T and B). Most T lymphocytes will migrate to the thymus when they mature
is an immune system created by T cells. These cells do not produce antibodies and act against foreign agents or antigens in different ways. They can active other immune systems or release signaling molecules. These cells can directly kill unwanted microbes. They
are more than B lymphocytes against fungi, protozoa, worms, and are also better at fighting cancer.
Cell Mediated Immunity
do not produce antibodies and act against foreign agents or antigens in different ways
Once each ______________ has been marked it can only produce antibodies for that specific antigen. Your body can produce over 100 million different types of antibodies in your lifetime
is clumping together making them less effective at multiplying, enter cells or doing their damage
is the coating of the antigen to mark it for destruction. This also alerts the phagocytes (from WBC) to know there is something to eat here
is when it blocks it from being able to stick to your mucosa making them get washed. It also blocks the active site of any toxins that may have been released. Microbes are not what make us sick; it is the toxins or poisons they release.
consists of over 30 different proteins that are produced by the liver. Most molecules are numbered (c1 – c9) and each is capable of splitting to A and B that each has responsibility to make immune system work. It would not work without this system.
A diseased liver will cause increased sickness because the compliment system would not work.
is referred to amount of specific antibody in the plasma. 1st exposure to a bug is considered the primary response. Antibodies cannot be measured for several days. It will rise slowly and then gradually
decline (weeks). A 2nd expose
the titer will rise rapidly and go much higher and then slowly decline (years). Shots require boosters for this purpose. First shot would be first exposure and second
would linger in system longer
The nose is separated by a ______________
empty into the nasal cavity
Nasal cavity empties into the
= back of your nose and upper part of throat
= throat box or voice box
= Adams apple
Apex of the windpipe
prevents food from entering the trachea
= windpipe. It connects to the primary bronchi and bifurcates into 2 primary bronchi. It has cilia in it that sweeps mucus along. This mucus keeps debris from getting trapped. Smoking will destroy cilia
would be performed in the trachea
branch into secondary bronchi also know as bronchioles. Bronchioles are going to feed the gas exchange structures in the lungs called the alveoli. You have 300 million alveoli
have 3 lobes on the right lung and 2 on the left leaving room for the heart
are divided into lobules. It is one bronchiole and all the alveoli that it serves. Around the alveoli we have capillaries. Gas exchange will move in and out of the capillaries by diffusion.
is the material lining the lungs. This keeps the lungs from collapsing. It doesn’t block the gas exchange like ammonia, puss and mucus would.
means the infant is not producing any surfactant.
Infant Respiratory Stress Syndrome
is the maximum amount of air a person can exhale after taking the largest or deepest inhalation possible
is the air that remains in the lungs as dead air space
is the amount of air the moves in and out with relaxed breathing
is created by the rib cage that forms the top and the sides of the cavity. The diaphragm is at the bottom
lines the lung cavity
basically lines the inside of the ribs
is adhered to the lungs
is between the parietal pleura and the visceral pleura.
A friction rub you get if you don’t produce enough fluid between parietal and visceral pleura tissues that can be very painful
these cells do not produce antibodies and act agains a foreign agent or antigens in different ways. They can activate other immune systems or release signaling molecules
These cells can directly kill unwanted microbes and are more effective than B lymphocytes against fungi, protozoa, worms, and are also better at fighting cancer