patho quiz 4 neurological disorders.txt

  1. What are Astrocytes
    • Major supporting cell
    • Show most common reactive changes
  2. What are Oligodendrocytes
    • Wrap around neuronal axons to form myelin
    • Similar to Schwann cells in PNS
  3. What are Microglia
    • Derived from circulation monocytes
    • Function as APCs
    • Similar to macrophage
  4. What are CNS supporting cells:
    • Glial cells
    • Blood vessels
    • Ependymal cells  epithelial membrane lining the ventricular system and spinal cord
  5. What is the PNS supporting cell:
    Schwann cell
  6. What is an Aneurysm:
    circumscribed dilation of an artery
  7. WHat is a Saccular aneurysm:
    sac-like swelling (dilation) on one side of an artery
  8. What is a Subarachnoid hemorrhage
    Most common cause of spontaneous/non-traumatic of SH is rupture of saccular aneurysm
  9. What is Epidural hematoma
    is due to rupture of meningeal artery in brain parenchyma
  10. Hematoma:
    localized mass of extravasated blood (already clotted)
  11. Meningeal; meninges; meninx:
    membranous covering of brain and spinal cord
  12. Subdural hematoma is
    due to disruption of bridging veins in brain parenchyma
  13. Concussion
    • Transient loss of consciousness caused by violent shaking
    • Widespread paralysis
  14. Contusion
    • In superficial brain parenchyma
    • Hemorrhages caused by blunt trauma
  15. Laceration
    Accidental cut wound
  16. Anencephaly:
    • neural tube defect
    • Associated with dietary folate deficiency (Vitamin B)
  17. Meningitis
    : inflammation of leptomeninges and subarachnoid space; bacteria and viruses are most common causes
  18. how do pathogens reach the nervous system
    • Hematogenous spread  via blood
    • Direct implantation  trauma, CNS malformations
    • Local extension  middle ear, sinuses
    • Invasion via peripheral nerves  rabies, herpes zoster
  19. Acute pyogenic meningitis 
    • bacterial
    • Poor prognosis
    • Important cause of morbidity and mortality at all ages
    • Neonatal infection from encapsulated group B strep and E. coli from maternal genital tract
  20. Aseptic meningitis  viral
    • Better prognosis
    • Most caused by:
    • o Echovirus
    • o Coxsackievirus
    • o Mumps
    • o HIV
    • 3. Chronic meningitis  bacteria & fungi
  21. What are the common pathogens of viral encephalitis?
    • 1.Arbovirus  arthropod-bone virus
    • " Large heterogenous groups of RNA viruses
    • " Most associated with arthropods that may be vectors
    • 2.JEV  Japanese Encephalitis
    • 3.HSV-1 and HSV-2
    • 4.CMV
    • 5.HIV
    • 6.Varicella-zoster virus (herpes zoster)
  22. Prion diseases:
    • group of uncommon, transmissible disorders that includes classic and new-variant Creutz-Jakob disease (CJD)
    • Scrapie in sheep and goats
    • BSE (bovine spongiform
  23. Multiple Sclerosis
    • The most common demyelinating disease of the CNS (250,000-300,000 patients in the US)
    • Involve T-cell-mediated injury to myelin sheath and/or oligodendroglial cells: Maybe autoimmune disease
    • Potential causes: Exposure to an environmental agent early in life
    • Peak incidence: 18-40 years
    • Most cases are clinically characterized by waxing and waning neurologic abnormalities involving different regions of the CNS.
  24. What is the pathogensesis of alzehemers
    • 1. Genetic Factors
    • " amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene(chromosome 21)
    • " Presenilin 1(chromosome 14)
    • " Presenilin 2(chromosome 1)
    • " e4 allele of apolipoprotein E (apoE)(chromosome 19)
    • 2. Deposition of A Form of Amyloid:
    • " Derived from breakdown of APP and form b-amyloid (Ab)
    • 3. Hyperphosphorylation of the Protein Tau
    • " Tau is an intracellular protein that is involved in the assembly of intra- axonal microtubules
    • " Accumulation of hyperphosphorylated Tau may interfere with maintenance of normal microtubule
    • 4. Expression of Specific Alleles of apoE
    • " apoE may be involved in transport or processing of the APP
    • " apoE may contribute to enhanced amyloid fibril formation
  25. Understand the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease.
    • 1. Environmental factors:
    • exposure to pesticides or herbicides, rural living, and drinking well water
    • 2. Genetic factors:
    •  Mutations in synuclein prevent the normal breakdown of a-synuclein, leading it to accumulate in the neuron, where it then goes on to damage the cell
    •  Mutations in parkin, which normally helps break down proteins. It is believed that the loss of parkin causes build-up of proteins (though not of a-synuclein), again leading to damage
  26. Understand the pathogenesis of Huntington disease.
    • " HD is an inherited autotosomal dominant disease characterized clinically by progressive movement disorders and dementia,with degenerationofthestriatum(caudateandputamen) degeneration of the striatum (caudate and putamen).
    • " The disease is caused by trinucleotide repeat (CAG) mutationsin the huntingtingene, which cause, in turn, the synthesis of a form of the huntingtin protein containing an abnormal number of glutamine residues.
    • " Clinical onsetisusuallyinthefourthandfifthdecade(involuntary, Clinical onset is usually in the fourth and fifth decade (involuntary, writhing movements, seizures, rigidity, depression). The jerking movement is also called  chorea (dance in Greek)
    • " Common cause of death: Suicide
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patho quiz 4 neurological disorders.txt
patho cns