Comm 231

  1. Types of Examples to use in a speech
    • 1. Brief Examples
    • 2.Extended examples
    • 3.hypothetical examples
  2. Brief Examples
    a single illustration of a point
  3. Extended Examples
    multifaceted illustrations of the idea, item, or event being described, thereby getting the point across and reiterating if effectively
  4. Hypothetical Examples
    an illustration of something that could happen in the future if certain things occured
  5. Types of Testimonials
    • 1. Expert
    • 2. Lay
  6. Expert Testimonials
    any findings, eyewitness accounts of opinions by professionals who are trained to evaluate or report on a given topic; a form of supporting material
  7. Lay Testimonials
    testimony by a nonexpert; a form of supporting material
  8. Organizing a Speech
    • 1. Intro
    • 2. Body
    • 3. Conclusion
  9. The goal of an Intro
    arouse the audience, introduce your topic purpose, preview the main points, motivate the audience to accept your goals, make the topic relevant
  10. The goals of a Body
    presents the main points that are inteded to fulfill the speech purpose.
  11. The goals of a conclusion
    ties the purpose and the main points together
  12. Types of Attention Grabbers
    • use a quotation
    • tell a story
    • pose questions
    • say something srartling
    • use humor
    • refer to the occasion
    • establish common ground
  13. The importance and risk of using humor in a speech
    Using humor in a speech can be effective if it relates to your topic and is used wisely. Jokes that belittles others should be strictly avoided in any speech.
  14. The importance of smiling in a speech
    a smile is a sign of mutual welcome at the start of a speech, of mutual comfort and interest during the speech and of mutual goodwill at the close of a speech. Can help ease the nerves. facial expressions need to correspond to hte tenor of the speech
  15. Considerations for proper facial expressions when speaking
    • 1. Avoid a deadpan expression
    • 2. Use animated expressions that feel natural express your meaning
    • 3. never use ecpressions taht are out of character for you or inappropriate for the speech occassion
    • 4. In preactice sessions, loosen you facial features with exercises such as widenening the eyes and moving the mouth
    • 5. align your facial expressions with your feelings
    • 6. establish rapport with the audience by smiling naturally when appropriate
  16. “Matt’s prescription for successful speech practice”
    (6-8 full run-thru’s per day, for a minimum of 3 days prior to thespeech, totaling 18-24 practice deliveries in front of a mirror or videotaped)
  17. The importance of paralanguage
  18. The Rule of Three
    pick 3 audience members to focus on, one on the right middle and left. they will be your anchors as you scan the room
  19. Aural Channel vs. Visual Channel
  20. Aural Channel
    Made up of the vocalizations that form and accompany spoken words
  21. Visual Channel
    includes that speakers physical actions and appearance -facial expressions, gestures, general body movement, physical appearance, dress, and objects held
  22. The importance of proper attire
    your attire reveals an attitude about what you are doing and the amount of effort you seem willing to put into it. The more professional you look the more professional you feel and the more positive the attitude you will convey to audience members
  23. Types of presentation aids
    overhead transperancies, compter generated graphics and displays, Flip charts, chalkboards, handouts,
  24. Issues to consider if distributing a handout
    it can be a distraction unless you want them to specifically read the info as you speak. Having too many can undercut their effectiveness
  25. Statistics on speaking / paralanguage / nonverbal communication (also covered in an earlier slideshow)
  26. Aristotle’s forms of rhetorical proof (Ethos, Pathos, Logos
  27. Inductive vs. Deductive Logic
  28. The structure of a “syllogism"
  29. Argumentative fallacies
  30. bandwagon
  31. appeal to tradition
  32. either/or
  33. red herring
  34. reduction to absurdity
  35. slippery slope
  36. ad hominem
  37. Statistics
  38. Cherry-Picking
  39. Narratives
  40. Anecdotes
  41. Main Points
  42. Supporting Points
  43. Thesis Statement
  44. Specific Purpose
  45. Unity
  46. Balance
  47. Transitions
  48. Rhetorical Questions
  49. Call-to-Action
  50. Pitch
  51. Intonation
  52. Speaking Rate
  53. Vocal fillers
  54. Pronunciation
  55. Articulation
  56. Dialects
  57. Vocal Variety
  58. Scanning
  59. Talking Head
Card Set
Comm 231
Exam 2 comm 231