1. Complexity
    the # of different aspects that make up the self
  2. Low complexity (simple)
    high intensity positive and negative feelings, greater mood swings
  3. High complexity (complex)
    less intense feelings
  4. Discrepancies
    a gap between what one sees and what one would like to see (actual, ideal, ought)
  5. Self-concept
    an organized collection of beliefs about the self
  6. Self-esteem
    one's overall assessment of one's worth as a person
  7. Narcissim
    the tendency to regard oneself as grandiosely self-important
  8. Self-attributions
    inferences that people draw about the causes of their own behavior
  9. Internal attributions
    ascribe the causes of behavior to personal dispositions, traits, abilities, and feelings
  10. External attributions
    ascribe the causes of behavior to situational demands and environmental constraints
  11. Self-enhancement
    the tendency to maintain positive feelings about oneself
  12. Methods of self-enhancement
    downward comparisons, self-serving bias, basking in reflected glory, self-handicapping
  13. Downward social comparison
    a defensive tendency to compare oneself with someone whose troubles are more serious than one's own
  14. Self-serving bias
    the tendency to attribute one's successes to personal factors and one's failures to situational factors
  15. Basiking in reflected glory
    the tendency to enhance one's image by publicly announcing one's association with those who are successful
  16. Self-handicapping
    the tendency to sabotage one's performance to provide an excuse for possible failure
  17. Self-regulation
    the process of directing and controlling one's behaviors
  18. Self-efficacy
    refers to one's belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes
  19. Person perception
    the process of forming impressions of others
  20. Attributions
    inferences that people draw about the causes of their own behavior, others' behavior, and events
  21. Confirmation bias
    the tendency to seek information that supports one's beliefs while not pursuing disconfirming information
  22. Self-fulfilling prophecy
    occurs when expectations about a person cause the person to behave in ways that confirm the expectations
  23. Cognitive distortions
    two-stage model of attributions: rapid and automatic, slower and controlled
  24. Rapid and automatic stage
    snap judgement
  25. Slower and controlled stage
    • we can correct our automatic attributions
    • systematic judgement (similar to reducing prejudice)
  26. Stereotypes
    • widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group
    • public, private, implicit (unconscious)
  27. Implicit stereotypes
    • enduring attitude that predisposes a response toward a group
    • remarkably easy to acquire
    • negative experience with one member of a group can influence lifelong emotions and beliefs
  28. Stereotype influences
    • in-group bias (favor those like us)
    • scapegoating (blame someone else for your problems)
    • categorizing
    • vivid case (one exceptional case)
  29. Fundamental attribution error (essay)
    • refers to the tendency to explain other people's behavior as the result of personal, rather than situational, factors
    • defense attribution- "it wouldn't happen to me"
    • just world bias- "she deserved it"
  30. Prejudice
    negative attitude toward members of a group
  31. Discrimination
    behaving differently toward members of a certain group
  32. Reducing prejudice
    • conginitive strategies- automatic processing to controlled processing (mindlessness to mindfulness)
    • intergroup contact- work together for a common goal, successful outcomes, meaninful connections, equal status contact
  33. Conformity
    occurs when people yield to real or imagined social pressure
  34. Compliance
    occurs when people yield to social pressure in their public behavior, even though their private beliefs have not changed
  35. Normative inference
    operates when people conform to social norms for fear of negative social consequences
  36. Informational influence
    operates when people look to others for how to behave in ambiguous situations
  37. Bystander effect
    the tendency for individuals to be less likely to provide help when others are present than when they are alone
  38. Obedience
    a form of compliance that occurs when people follow direct commands, usually from someone in a position of authority
  39. Interpersonal communication
    an interactional process in which one person sends a message to another
  40. Model of communication components
    • sender
    • receiver
    • message
    • channel- what bodily mode are you using (gesture, eye contact)
    • noise- interference that messes up the conveying of the message (anything, not just noise)
    • context- environment/setting
  41. Nonverbal communication
    multi-channeled, ambiguous, conveys emotion, may contradict verbal message, is culture-bound (more/less physical touching, varied greetings)
  42. Proxemics
    the study of people's use of interpersonal space
  43. Types of nonverbal communcation
    facial expression, eye contact, body language, touch, paralanguage (includes all vocal cues other than the content of the verbal message itself)
  44. Proximity
    refers to geographic, residential, and other forms of spatial closeness
  45. More exposure effect
    an increase in positive feelings toward a novel stimulus (person) based on frequent exposure to it
  46. Matching hypothesis
    proposes that people of similar levels of physical attractiveness gravitate toward each other
  47. Parental investment theory
    maintains that a species' mating patterns depend on what each sex has to invest, in the way of time, energy, and survival risk, to produce and nurture offspring
  48. Reciprocal liking
    refers to liking those who show that they like you
  49. Relationship maintenance
    involves the actions and activities used to sustain the desired quality of a relationship
  50. Interdependence/social exchange theory
    postulates that interpersonal relationships are governed by perceptions of the rewards and costs exchanged in interactions
  51. Comparison level
    a personal standard of what constitutes an acceptable balance of rewards and costs in a relationship
  52. Comparison level for alternatives
    one's estimation of the available outcomes from alternative relationships
  53. Investments
    things that people contribute to a relationship that they can't get back if the relationship ends
  54. Triangular theory of love
    • intimacy- refers to warmth, closeness, and sharing in a relationship
    • passion- refers to the intense feelings (both positive and negative) experienced in love relationships, including sexual desire
    • commitment- involves the decision and intent to maintain a relationship in spite of the difficulties and costs that may arise
  55. Attachment styles
    • typical ways of interacting in close relationships
    • secure
    • avoidant
    • anxious/ambivalent
  56. Why divorce rates increase
    • stigma attached in past has eroded
    • religious denominations more tolerant
    • marriage loses some of sacred quality
    • smaller families make divorce less dire
    • women less financially dependent
    • attitudes change, no longer expected to suffer in silence
  57. Divorce rates
    • increased dramatically between the 50's and 80's, but have stabilized and slightly decreased since then
    • was 50%, now between 40 and 45%
  58. Divorce effects
    • 25% of children show serious psychological or emotional problems in adulthood
    • depression, anxiety, nightmares, dependency, aggression, withdrawal, distractibility, lowered academic performance, reduced physical health, precocious sexual behavior, substance abuse
  59. Gay relationships
    • approximately 10% (5-8% identified)
    • homosexual relationships briefer than heterosexual
    • long-term relationships are preferred
    • levels of love, commitment, sexual satisfaction and overall satisfaction similiar to heterosexual couples
    • less likely to adopt "traditional" gender roles than stereotyped
    • most are not "highly-sexed" individuals
    • can be and often are active family members
  60. Date rape
    refers to forced and unwanted intercourse in the context of dating
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