Nursing III~Cancer

  1. Two major dysfunctions present in the process of cancer
    Cell Proliferation(growth) and Defective Cell differentiation
  2. Tumor Inducing Genes (mutated protooncogenes)
  3. Two Classifications of tumors
    • Benign (non cancerous)
    • Malignant (Cancerous)
  4. Three stages of Cancer
    • 1. Initiation (initial occurance of mutation)
    • 2. Promotion (reversible proliferation of altered cell)
    • 3. Progression (increased growth rate, size, and invasiveness)
  5. Process by which cancer cells evade the immune system
    Immunologic Escape
  6. The only definitive means of diagnosing cancer
  7. The 3 goals of cancer Tx
    • 1. Cure - rid of disease
    • 2. Control- contain disease
    • 3. Palliation- relief of symptoms
  8. The goal of Chemotherapy
    To eliminate or reduce the number of malignant cells present within the tumor or malignant site
  9. Radiation
    The emmision and distribution of energy through space or a material medium

    Used to treat a specific area to acheive local control
  10. Nurses Role in Cancer Tx
    • Help patient cope with psychoemotional issues
    • Education about what to expect from Tx, side effects, importance of adherence
  11. Most sensitive tissues to radiation or chemo
    Intestinal Mucosa
  12. Most common side effect of Chemo and sometimes Radiation
  13. Agents that modify the relationship bw the host and the tumor by changing biologic response
    Biologic Therapy
  14. Interferes with cancer growth by targeting specific cellular receptors and pathways that are important to tumor growth
    Targeted Therapy
  15. Side effects of Bologic Therapy
    • Capillary leak syndrome
    • pulmonary edema
    • bone marrow supression
    • fatigue
  16. Experimental therapy that involves introducing genetic material into a persons cell to fight a disease
    Gene Therapy
  17. Group of more than 200 diseases
  18. Three things a Cell can do after it is mutated
    • Cell can die
    • Cell can repair itself
    • Cell can survive and pass defect on
  19. Protooncogenes
    • Promotes growth in normal cellular differentiation
    • Helps keep cells functioning normally
  20. Tumor Suppressor Genes
    • regulates cell growth
    • suppresses tumor growth
    • rendered inactive with mutations
  21. Benign neoplasm
    • Well differentiated
    • Encapsulated
    • Expansive mode of growth
    • Similar to parent cell in apperance
    • Rarley recurs
    • Does not metastisize
  22. Malignant neoplasm
    • Usually undifferentiated
    • Metastisizes
    • Frequently recures
    • Highly vascular
    • Not encapsulated
    • Not like parent cell in appearance
  23. Initiation Phase
    • Mutation of cells genetic structure
    • Mutation is NOT reversible
    • Only become tumors when can self replicate and grow
    • Can be caused by carcinogen
    • Cells can die, repair or mutate and pass on to daughter cells
  24. Carcinogens can be
    • Viral
    • Radiation(Ionizing Rad and UV rays)
    • Chemical(Certain drugs)

    Can be detoxified or harmlessly excreted
  25. Promotion Phase
    • reversible proliferation of altered cells (ie...obesity, smoking, alcohol, diet)
    • Latent period of 1-40 years, depending on miotic rate
  26. Progression Phase
    • Increased growth rate
    • Invasive (usually mets in lung, brain, liver, bone or adrenal glands)
    • Irreversible
  27. Immune Systems Role
    • Reponds to TAA (tumor associated antigens)
    • Continually checks for and destroys abnormal cells
    • T Cells (kills tumor cells directly)
    • B Cells (produces antibodies)
    • Natural Killer Cells (activates machrophages)
Card Set
Nursing III~Cancer
Nursing III Cancer