501 Midterm

  1. Important Early People in Counseling/Guidance
    • Frank Parsons: "Father of Guidance"
    • Founded Boston's Vocational Bureau - 3 factor theory of choosing a vocation
    • Jesse Davis: Set up first systemized School Guidance program
    • Clifford Beers: Advocate for Mentally Ill (former mental patient) - Started the first outpatient mental health clinic in US
  2. ACA Definition of Counseling
    The application of mental health, psychological or human development principles, through cognitive, affective, behavioral or systemic interventions, strategies that address wellness, personal growth, or career development, as well as pathology
  3. Attribution Models
    • Medical: Counselor is expert; Client not responsible for cause or solution of problem
    • Moral: Counselor acts as coach; Client is responsible for cause and solution of problem
    • Compensatory: Counselor and client work in collaborative relationship; Client not responsible for cause of problem, but is responsible for solution
    • Enlightenment: Counselor acts as authority figure; Client is responsible for cause of problem, but not responsible for solution
  4. Systems of Counseling
    • Developmental/Wellness Approach: view clients as "stuck" in an earlier developmental phase/stage - and, therefore, are behaving in ways that reflect an earlier phase of life
    • Medical/Pathological Model: view clients' problems as "symptoms" that need "fixed" or "cured"
    • Many times attributes psychological issues to biochemical dysfunction
  5. Who accredits counseling programs in US
    Council for Accreditation of Counseling & Related Educational Programs - CACREP
  6. Credentialing
    • Certification: process by which an agency/association grants recognition to an individual for having met certain predetermined professional qualifications
    • Broader than state licensure
    • Provides referral sources & networking nationally
    • Recognizes specialty areas

    Licensure: provides legal standards of and permission to practice a particular profession within a particular state
  7. Personal Qualities of Effective Counselors
    • Curiosity & inquisitiveness
    • Ability to listen
    • Comfort w/ conversation
    • Empathy & understanding
    • Emotional insightfulness
    • Introspection
    • Capacity for self-denial
    • Tolerance of intimacy
    • Comfort w/ power
    • Ability to laugh
    • Intellectual competence
    • Energy
    • Flexibility Support
    • Spontaneous
    • Creative
    • Goodwill
    • Self-awareness
  8. Dysfunctional Motivators to Become a Counselor
    • Emotional distress/unresolved personal trauma
    • Vicarious coping
    • Loneliness & isolation
    • Desire for power
    • Need for love
    • Vicarious rebellion
  9. Legal Aspects of Sharing Information
    Confidentiality: a promise to clients that info shared during counseling will not be shared with others without their permission

    Privacy: an individual's right to choose the time, circumstances, and extent to which s/he wishes to share or withhold personal info

    Privileged communication: regulates privacy protection and confidentiality of individuals in counseling (not groups or family) by protection of clients from having their confidential communications disclosed in court without their permission
  10. Common Unethical Behaviors
    • Violation of confidentiality
    • Exceeding one's level of professional competence
    • Negligent practice
    • Claiming expertise one does not possess
    • Imposing one's values on a client
    • Creating dependency in a client
    • Sexual activity with a client
    • Certain conflicts of interest (dual relationships)
    • Improper advertising
    • Questionable financial arrangements (charging excessive fees, taking gifts in place of payments)
  11. Purpose of Ethics
    • Statements for protection of client's rights while identifying expectations of therapists
    • Without a code, counselors could not be seen as a professional organization
    • Allow the counseling profession to regulate itself
    • Promotes stability by controlling for internal disagreements
    • Protect practitioners from the public (malpractice lawsuits)
  12. Basic Ethical Principles
    • Beneficence: doing good and preventing harm
    • Nonmaleficence: not inflicting harm - current or future
    • Autonomy: respecting freedom of choice and self-determination
    • Justice: fairness
    • Fidelity: faithfulness or honoring commitments
  13. Shared Elements of Culture
    • Learned experiences
    • Beliefs
    • Values
  14. Multicultural Counseling Competencies
    Knowledge of the worldviews of culturally different clients

    Awareness of one's own personal worldview and how one is a product of cultural conditioning

    Skills necessary for work with culturally different clients
  15. Multicultural Counseling
    • Recognize values & beliefs about acceptable & desirable behavior
    • Awareness of cultural & generic qualities of counseling theories & traditions (No method is culture free)
    • Understand the sociopolitical environment that has influenced the lives of minority groups
    • Share the worldview of clients and do not question its legitimacy
    • Remain eclectic in counseling practice by using a variety of counseling skills
  16. Stages in Groups
    • Forming: foundation for what's going to happen. Express anxiety and dependency
    • Storming: hierarchy of group established. Deal with issues concerning anxiety, power, and future expectations
    • Norming: goals & tools to problem-solve are determined
    • Performing: group members become involved with each other and their individual & collective goals
    • Mourning/Adjourning: group comes to an end. Usually have closure ceremony. Members either feel fulfilled or bitter.
  17. Advantages of Groups
    • Instillation of hope
    • Universality
    • Imparting info
    • Altruism
    • Corrective recapitulation of the primary family group
    • Development of socializing techniques
    • Imitative behavior
    • Interpersonal learning
    • Group cohesiveness
    • Catharsis
    • Existential factors
  18. Group Size
    • Determined by its purpose & preference
    • Large groups less likely to focus on needs of inds
    • Generally agreed upon number - 6 to 8 member
    • Groups running 6 months - may be productive with up to 10 members
    • Groups with children - may be as small as 3 or 4
  19. Differences Between Counseling and Consultation
    • Consultation can be more directive and teaching oriented
    • Consultants play a catalyst role to get the consultee and/or consultee's client started on change
  20. Why Counselors Don't Like Research
    • Lack of knowledge about research methods
    • Lack of awareness of the importance of research in planning effective treatment procedures
    • Lack of financial support
    • Lack of other resources (time)
    • Absence of clear goals & objectives for the programs in which they work
    • Fear of finding negative results
    • Discouragement from peers or supervisors
    • Low aptitudes & limited abilities for conducting investigative studies

    *Through evaluation & research counselors come to understand & improve their practices
  21. Validity
    • Content Validity: refers to whether the test content represents the domain that's supposed to be measured
    • Criterion Validity: (predictive) refers to the strength of relationship between test scores and some kind of criterion (a rating, classification, or score)
    • Construct Validity: refers to how well a test measures a psychological construct or trait (self-esteem, mechanical aptitude, intelligence)
  22. Reliability
    Describes test result consistency/repeatability/stability

    Answers the question - "If I give this test again, will I get the same results?"
  23. Elementary School Counselors
    • Work from preventive & developmental perspective
    • 4 Cs - Counseling services, Coordination of activities, Consultation with others, Curriculum development

    • Implement effective classroom guidance
    • Provide ind & small group counseling
    • Assist students in identifying their skills & abilities
    • Work with special populations
    • Develop students' career awareness
    • Coordinate school, community, & business resources
    • Consult with teachers and other professions
    • Communicate & exchange info with parents/guardians
    • Participate in school improvement and interdisciplinary teams
  24. Middle School Counselors
    • Individual counseling
    • Group experiences
    • Peer support groups
    • Teacher consultation
    • Student assessment
    • Parent consultation
    • Evaluation of guidance services
  25. High School Counselors
    • Provide ind & group direct counseling
    • Provide educational & support services to parents
    • Offer consultation & in-service programs to teachers & staff
    • Facilitate referrals to outside agencies
    • Advice academically

    • Faced with 2 conflicting needs - Student Counseling and Academic Administrative Tasks (scheduling)
    • *Must combat inappropriate roles by developing & publicizing what they do and how they do it
  26. Employment Settings for Mental Health Counselors
    • Mental health centers
    • Community agencies
    • Psychiatric hospitals
    • Health maintenance organizations (HMOs)
    • Employee assistance programs (EAPs)
    • Health & wellness promotion programs (HWPs)
    • Geriatric centers
    • Crisis control agencies
    • Child guidance clinics
    • Private practitioners
  27. Levels of Prevention
    Primary Prevention: is "before the fact" and is oriented toward "groups"

    Secondary Prevention: controlling mental health problems that have already surfaced but aren't severe

    Tertiary Prevention: controlling serious mental health problems to keep them from becoming chronic or life threatening

    Mental Health Counselors assess client functioning and, if appropriate, use theories and techniques to treat symptoms and conditions
Card Set
501 Midterm
Study guide for midterm