pt eval a20

  1. normal chest xray are
    • rounded
    • dome-shaped
  2. the right hemidiaphragm is slightly
    higher than the left

    the right has the liver
  3. right hemidiaphragm is at the level of the
    sixth aterior rib
  4. trachea is midline, bilateral radiolucency with
    sharp costophrenic angles
  5. head of clavicles should be
  6. trachea is seen as a
    dark are midline
  7. area btwn the lungs where the heart, lymphatics, blood vessels and major bronchi are found
  8. a-p diameter is increased with
    • COPD
    • barrel chest
    • hyperinflation
  9. flat diaphragm means
  10. vascular markings are
    • blood vessels
    • lymphatics
    • lung tissue

    (white area)
  11. where is the film located with AP projection
    film behind back
  12. where is the film located with PA projection
    film touching the chest with the back to xray
  13. lateral decubitus position is valuable for detecting
    small pl effusions
  14. the tip of the ETT should be positioned below the vocal cords and no closer than
    2cm or 1inch above the carina
  15. what is the quickest way to determine adequate ventilation once the ETT is in
    • observation
    • auscultation
    • cxr
  16. diagnostic tool for identifying an upper airway obstruction in children with coup or epiglottitis
    later neck xray
  17. viral disorder common in infants and young children
  18. xray of the neck will reveal tracheal narrowing w/ subglottic in a pattern:
    • steeple sign
    • picket fence sign
    • pencil point sign
  19. bacterial infection is
  20. lateral neck xray will reveal
    thumb sign
  21. xray through a specificplane of the body part to be examined. images appear as narrow slices of the organ or body part
    computerized tomography CT
  22. spiral CT scan with contrast dye may be used for the diagnose of
    pulm embolism
  23. determines the precise position of tumors and the involvement of surrounding structures
    magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  24. v/q scan- if the results indicate a normal ventilation scan but abnormal perfusion scan=
    pulm emboli
  25. perform and diagnose of abnormalities in the hypopharynx, esophagus, or stomach
    barium swallow
  26. determines the presence of cancer, brain disorders and heart disease
    PET scan
  27. by outlining the airways it will allow study of obstructing lesions (tumors) and bronchiectasis (main indication)
    bronchography (bronchograms)
  28. electroencephalography EEG is an indication of
    • brain tumors
    • epilepsy/seizures
    • sleep disorder
  29. pulmonary angriography is a definitive test for diagnosing a
    pulm embolism
  30. noninvasive method for monitoring cardiac performance
    ultrasonography of the heart (echocardiogram)
  31. monitoring that is performed to track the dynamics inside the skull such as volume pressure relationships, pressure waves, and cerebral perfusion pressures
    intracranial pressure monitoring
  32. normal value for ICP
    5-10 mmHg
  33. most researchers recommend initiating treatment if ICP
    >20 mmHg
  34. pt should be hyperventilated until the paCo2 is
    25-30 torr
  35. FEno
    exhaled Nitric oxide NIOX testing
  36. a decrease in FEno suggests a decrease in
    airway inflammation
  37. measurement of all major ingredients of the blood
  38. RBC normal value
    4-6 mill/mn
  39. high RBC (polycythemia) occurs with
    chronic tissue hypoxemia (COPD)
  40. low RBC (anemia) occurs with
    blood loss, hemorrhage
  41. hemoglobin carries
  42. hemoglobin normal value
    12-16 gm/100 ml blood

    (THINK 15)
  43. hematocrit normal value

    (THINK 45)
  44. low HCT
  45. high HCT
  46. WBC are used by the body to fight
  47. WBC normal value
    5,000-10,000 per mm
  48. increased WBC
    leukocytosis=bacterial infection
  49. decreased WBC
    leukopenia=viral infection
  50. to treat high WBC you should give
  51. electrolytes are
    • k
    • na
    • cl
    • hco3
  52. electrolytes elements required by the body for normal
  53. electrolytes is closely associated with
    • fluid levels
    • kidney function
  54. clinical application of electrolyte imbalance
    • muscle weakness
    • soreness
    • nausea
    • mental changes/lethargic/dizziness/drowsiness
  55. normal value of K

    (think 35-45)
  56. hypokalemia-
    low K
  57. if pt whines and complains give
  58. major INTRAcellular cation
  59. normal value Na

    (just put 1 in front over K)
  60. major EXTRAcellular cation controlled by kidneys
  61. normal range of Cl
  62. normal range of HCO3
  63. creatine is excreted by the
  64. BUN evaluates
    kidney function
  65. BUN normal value
  66. yellow sputum
    presence of WBC, bacterial infection

    (WBC= allergic response)
  67. green sputum
    gram negative bacteria
  68. brown/dark sputum
    old blood
  69. bright red sputum
    hemoptysis (bleeding tumor, TB)
  70. pink frothy
    pulm edema
  71. identify the bacteria is present
    sputum culture
  72. identify what antibiotics will kill the bacteria
  73. identify whether it is gram positive or gram neg
    gram stain
  74. identify mycobacterium TB
    acid fast stain
  75. used for monitoring heparin therapy (blood thinner)
    activated partial thromboplastin time APTT
  76. used for monitoring Warfarin (coumadin) therapy
    prothrombin time PT
  77. reflects metabolic status of patient and is a screening test for kidney disease
  78. urinalysis can indicate
    urinary tract infection before blood culture results
  79. visual image of the electrical activity of the heart on a screen
  80. instrument used for recording the electrical activity of the heart
  81. portable version of an electrocardiograph that is worn under the clothes by the pt for a 24-48 hr period to detect cardiac arrhythmias
    holter monitor
  82. the electrical impulse is generated by which node
    SA node (pacemaker)
  83. the wave of depolarization moves through
    atria causing contraction (p wave)
  84. the impulse is received by the AV node where it is delayed for a shore time is which interval
    P-R interval
  85. the stimulus is sent through the
    bundle of his and the bundle branches to the perkinjie fibers
  86. the heart repolarizes at which wave
    T wave
  87. an object placed on the skin to conduct electric current from the body to a monitoring or measuring device
  88. a positive and a negative electrode that allows electrical current to flow
  89. best picture for QRS complex
    lead II
  90. V1 4th intercostal space is located on
    right side of sternum
  91. V2 4th intercostal space on
    left side of sternum
  92. V4 5th intercostal space,
    left mid-clavicular line
  93. V6 5th intercostal space,
    lest mid axillary line
  94. sinus tachycardio common cause is
    hypoxemia treat with oxy
  95. treat sinus bradycardia with
    • oxygen
    • atropine (increase hr)
  96. premature ventricular contraction PVC treat with
  97. v-tach with pulse treat with
    • lidocaine
    • cardiovert
  98. v-tach with no pulse treat with
  99. v-fib (always pulseless) treat with
  100. asystole treat with
    • epi
    • atropine
    • CPR
  101. axis of an ECH measures the net direction of all the electricity through the heart during
  102. the normal asix is in a direction of
    down and to the left
Card Set
pt eval a20
pt eval a20