-laws in Ohio that required any African American entering the state to produce legal evidence that they were free, register w/ county clerk & post a $500 bond (to pay for their support in a case of want"
-prohibited black testimony against whites, black service on juries, & black enlistment in miltia.
The coplan family were one of the few African-American families in antebellum America affulent enough to commission such a portrait.
Free-Soil Party (1848-1853)
An almost entirely northern political coalition opposed to the explansion of slavery into western territories.
-included former supporters of the Whig, Democratic, and Liberty Policies
the term first came about in 1842 in Massachusetts, to refer to the special cars on trails that were set aside for african-american passengers.
Black Voter Disfrancised
some states did not allow any blacks the right to vote (NJ), while others only allowed black males the right to wote. 1818 CT only allowed previous black men who had that right to keep it, but new black males could not gain that right. NY didn't deny right, but raised the property value requirement, and eliminated the requirement for whites.
Black Communities in Urban North
-lived in both rural and urban areas.
Black Family in the North
-avg. black family had 2 parents, 2-4 children.
-increase in single parent households-mother.
*why? high mortality rate of B.men, jobs hard 2 find
-took in boarders & create extended families
-1st black female public speaker in us
-sometimes angered both black and white people in her speeches.
-"The Miseries We Tasted" criticized the treatment of black female workers in the north.
Elizabeth Taylor Greenfield
-a.k.a "Black Swan"
- renowned vocalist of the antebellim america; broad vocal range
debut in 1853, Metropoltian Hall, NYC before an white audience.
-born a slave in Mississippi, raised by quackers
France Ellen Watkins Harper
-born free in Baltimore
-1850's published antislavery poetry
*suffering of slaves
-traveled across North as an antislavery speaker.
-Poems on Various Subjects
Black Churches of the Antebellum America
-church buildings were community centers
-used them for schools, antislavery society meetings, harbored fugitive slaves.
-spoke about weaknesses of African Americans
-White churches had special sections, sunday school & communion for blacks.
Stephen Smith and William Whipper
-smith was born unfree, while Whipper was born free.
-Smith purchased own freedom, began own lumber co., then began purchasing reestate.