medical microbiology

  1. how do viruses cause disease
    • lyse infected cells
    • change normal activities to make more viruses
  2. how do fungi cause disease
    • access through inhalation or wounds
    • fungal spores elease difestive enzymes to damage cells, deeper invasion
    • some produce toxins
  3. how do protists cause disease
    • destruction of cells
    • interfer with host functions
    • change pH (prevents enzymatic funtion and disrupts bacterial community)
    • in digestive tract: blocks absorption
  4. how bacteria cause disease
    • increase contact
    • promote
    • adherence
    • invasion
    • colonization
  5. bacterial exotoxins
    • found in both gram + and gram -
    • secreted
    • predominately protein
    • more specific action
    • more potent
    • antigenic (alisist a strong immune responce - antibiotic)
  6. bacterial endotoxins
    • found in gram - cell wall
    • lipopolysaccharides
    • more stable than exotoxins (heat resistant)
    • less antigenic
    • less specific action
  7. stages in course of infectious disease
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    • Incubation period: no signs of symptoms
    • Prodomal phase: vague symptoms. not horrible
    • Invasion: most severe signs and symptoms
    • Acme: worst of it
    • Decline: declining signs and symtoms
    • Convelescence

    sizes or period of each stage/section varies
  8. why are dz still present with advances in medical care
    • limited access to health care
    • developmet of resistant strains
    • new dz discovered (move into an area previously unoccupied)
    • immigration and internation travel (spreads dz)
  9. epidemiology
    the study of factors and mechanisms affecting frequency and spread of dz
  10. incidence
    (measures of dz in population)
    • number of new cases # susceptible people examined per unit time
    • indicated how fast a dz is spreading
    • estimated as number of new caes per 100,000 susceptible people in a target population per year
  11. prevalence
    (measures of dz in a population)
    • number of cases per number of people examined at a point in time
    • estimated as number of cases per 100,000 people in a target population
    • indicated how much and how long a dz affects a population
  12. morbiditiy rate
    (measures of dz in population)
    number of cases/number of people in a population/unit time
  13. motality rate
    (measures of dz in population)
    number of deaths/number of people in a population/unit of time
  14. endemic
    always present in the population bt doesn't need to be conrolled (not worried)
  15. epidemic
    the incidence of infection is way above what is expected
  16. pandemic
    disease hs gone epidemic and spread worldwide
  17. sporadic
    • disease that "pops up"
    • not unexpected but we don't know when it will come up
  18. common source
    (patterns of dz spread)
    • when you have an increase over a short period of time
    • food poisoning
  19. propagated epidemic
    (patters of dz spread)
    • when you get your initial case that spreads it to person ad person and so on.
    • it occurs over a longer period of time with the less number of outbreaks
    • common cold
  20. direct contact
    • vertical: inutoral or suckaling
    • horizontal
  21. indirect contact
    (modes of transmission)
    via formites (inantimate objects)
  22. (mode of transmission)
    • less than or equal to 1m
    • wet: breathed out in wet moisture breath
    • dry: bacteria encased in mucous (outer drying protects bacteria inside -more serious - lasts longer)
  23. (modes of transmission)
    greater than 1 m
  24. vehicle transmission
    • waterbourne
    • airborne
    • food borne
  25. vector transmission
    • mechanical: move icrobe towards you
    • biological: "deer tick" get infected from another organism already infected
  26. reservoirs - living
    • symptomatic: shoes symptoms
    • carriers: not showing symptoms
    • zoonotic: animals
  27. reservoirs - nonliving
    • ground, soil, or dirt
    • ringworm -- fungus
    • endospores
  28. factors associated with nosocomial infections
    • invasive procedures
    • compomised hosts -- wounds, immune suppressed
    • concentration of microbes
    • antibiotic resistance

Card Set
medical microbiology
measures of dz, levels of dz, patterns of dz spread, etc.