Part of DNA base sequence; SPecifies the RNA or protein product.
main component of ribisomes
structures upon which polypeptide chains are built
delivers amino acids to ribosomes one by one in th eorder specified for a mRNA
protein building information in an mRNA is decoded into a sequence of amino acids.
in DNA a sequenceto which RNA polymerase binds.
complete set of sixty four mRNA codons.
permanent changes in the sequence of a cells DNA
mutation inw hich one or more base pairs are lost
mutation in which one or more base pairs become inserted into DNA
segments of DNA that can move spontaneously within or between chromosomes.
Q. A choromosome contains many different gene regions that are transcribed into different _____?
Q. A binding site for RNA polymerase is called a ____?
Q. Energy that drives transciption is provided mainly by____?
Q. A RNA molecule is typically _____; a DNA molecule is typically _____?
RNAs form by _____: proteins form by___?
Q. most codons specify a(n) _____?
Q. Anticodons pair with ____.
What is teh maximum length of a polypeptide encoded by a mRNA that is 45 nucleotides long?
______are removed from the new mRNA transcipts.
Where does transcription take place in a typical eukaryotic cell?
Each amino acid is specified by a set of ____ bases in an mRNA transcript.
Q. ___ different codons constitute the genetic code.
____ can cause mutations.
a series of events from the time a cell forms until its cytoplasm divides
in a eukaryotic cell cycle the interval between miotic division when a cell grows, roughly doubles the number of its cytoplasmic components and replicates its DNA
is a nuclear division mechanism that maintains the chromosome number.
chomosomes with teh same length shape and set of genes.
a dynamic network of microtubules that moves chromosomes during nuclear division
microtubules of the spindle separate the sister chromatids of each duplicated chromosomes, and move them toward opposite spindle poles.
in a dividing animal cell the indentation where cytoplasmic division will occur
gene that has teh potential to transform a normal cell into a tumor
disease that occurs when a neoplasm physically and metabolically disrupts body tissues
the process in which cancer cells spread from one part of the body to another.
Q. Mitosis and cytoplasmic division function to _________?
Q. A duplicated chromosome has _____ chromatids(s)
Except for a pairing of sex chromosomes, homologous chromosomes _____?
Most cells spend the majority of their lives in ____?
The Chromosomes align at the midpoint of the spindle during ____?
The spindle attaches to chromosomes at the____?
Only ____ is not a stage of mitosis?
Interphase is the part of the cell cycle when ______?
After mitosis the chromosome number of a descendant cell is ___ the parents cell.
name any check point gene
which following encompasses the other two?
refers to an allel that masks the effect of a recessive allele paired with it.
the particular set of alleles carried by an individual
having two different alleles of a gene
having identical alleles of a gene
the ofspring of a cross between two individuals that breed true for different forms of a trait. a heterosygous individual
location of a gene on a chromosome
an individuals observable traits
refers to an allel with an effect that is maksed by a dominant allel on the homologous chromosome
breeding experiment in which individuals identically heterozygous for one gene or crossed. the frequency of traits among the offspring offers information about the dominance relationship between the alleles
diagram used to predict the genetic and phenotypic outcome of a crossq
method of determining genotype in which an individual of unknown gentotype is crossed with one that is known to be homozygous recessive
breeding experiment in which individuals identically heterozygous for two genes are crossed. the frequency of traits among teh offspring offers information about the dominance relationships between the paired alleles.
refers to two alleles that are both fullly expressed in heterozygous individuals
effect in which a trait is influenced by the products of multiple genes.
condition in which one allele is not fullly dominant over another, so the heterozygous phenotype is betweeen the two homozygous phenotypes
multiple allele system
gene for which three or more alleles persist in a population
in a population a range of small differences in a shared trait.
bell shaped curve typicallly results from graphing frequency versus distribution for a trait that varies continuously.
study of patterns in the geographic distibution of species and communities
person who observes life from a scientific perspective
change in a line of descent
line of descent
theory of uniformity
idea that gradual repetitive processes occuring over long time spans shaped earths surface.
selective breeding of animals by humans
a heritable trait that enhances an individuals fitness
a process in which environemental pressure result in the differential survival and reproduction of individuals of a population who vary in the details of shared haritable traits.
degree of adaptation to an environment as measure by an individuals relative genetic contrinution to future generations.
a method that can reveal the age of a material by measureing its content of a radiosotope and daughter elements.