1. Public
    group that has common interests or values in a situation
  2. Stakeholder
    has interest in an organization or issue that potentially involves the organization
  3. Opinion leader
    individuals that members of the public turn to for advice
  4. Decision maker
    person or group who makes decisions for publics
  5. Gatekeeper
    editors or producers who decide which stories to include and which to reject
  6. Persuasion
    attempt to influence a person’s actions through an appeal to his self‐interest
  7. Public opinion
    average expressed behavioral inclination
  8. Ethics
    beliefs about right and wrong that guide the way we think and act
  9. Libel
    a false communication that wrongfully injures the reputation of others
  10. Slander
    oral statement that is false
  11. Actual malice
    making a libelous statement while knowing the information was false
  12. Fair use
    occasion where it is alright to use copyrighted works without the owners’ permission
  13. Trademark
    protects names, designs, slogans and symbols associated with a product
  14. Servicemark
    protects names, designs, slogans and symbols associated with a service
  15. 6 categories of publics
    • • Traditional and Non-traditional
    • • Latent, aware and active
    • • Intervening
    • • Primary and secondary
    • • Internal and external
    • • Domestic and international
  16. 6 types of traditional publics
    • • Employee
    • • News media
    • • Government
    • • Investor
    • • Consumer
    • • Business
  17. 3 uses of persuasion
    • 1. Change/neutralize hostile opinions
    • 2. Crystallize latent opinions into favorable ones
    • 3. Maintain favorable opinions
  18. 10 factors in persuasive communication
    • 1. Audience analysis
    • 2. Appeals to self‐interest
    • 3. Audience participation
    • 4. Suggestions for action
    • 5. Source credibility
    • 6. Clarity of message
    • 7. Content and structure of message
    • 8. Channels
    • 9. Timing and context
    • 10. Reinforcement
  19. 5 burdens of proof
    • Defamation
    • Identification
    • Publication
    • Falsity (Damage?)
    • Fault
  20. 4 torts of privacy
    • 1. Intrusion
    • 2. False Light
    • 3. Publication of Private Facts
    • 4. Appropriation
  21. Copyright
    protection of a creative work from unauthorized use
  22. Burden of Proof
    the 5 things a person must prove in order to claim libel
  23. Corporate Social Responsibility
    positive force for change to help improve quality of people’s lives
  24. Logos, Pathos, Ethos
    • Logos: appeal to reason
    • Pathos: appeal to emotions
    • Ethos: appeal based on personality or character
  25. Convergence of Media
    blending of the media made possible by digital technology
  26. Traditional public
    groups with ongoing, longterm relationships
  27. Nontraditional public
    groups that are unfamiliar with your organization
  28. Latent public
    values have come in contact with the values of your organization, but members have not realized it
  29. Aware public
    members are aware of intersection of their values and yours, but have not organized any response
  30. Active public
    recognizes the relationship and is working to manage that relationship in its own terms
  31. Intervening public
    helps you send a message to another public
  32. Primary public
    can directly affect your organizations pursuit of its values-driven goals
  33. Secondary public
    ability to affect your organizations goals is minimal
  34. Internal public
    inside your organization
  35. External public
    outside your organization
  36. Domestic public
    within your own country
  37. International public
    beyond your country’s borders
  38. Resource dependency theory
    premise that organizations form relationships with publics to acquire the resources they need to fulfill their values
  39. Magic Bullet Theory
    with the right message the general public will do anything
  40. Two‐Step Theory
    mass media influences opinion leaders, who in turn, influence society
  41. Multiple-Step Flow Theory
    opinion makers derive large amounts of information from mass media and share that information with people
  42. N‐Step Theory
    individuals are seldom influenced by only one opinion leader but actually interact with different leaders
  43. Diffusion Theory
    individuals adopt new ideas or products in five stages: awareness, interest, trial, evaluation and adoption.
  44. Uses and Gratification Theory
    real power to communicate with the public rests in the ability of receivers to pick and choose their channels of informa)on
  45. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
    • Physiological
    • Safety
    • Acceptance/Love
    • Esteem/Self-Esteem
    • Self-Actualization
Card Set
PR Principles Test #2