History 2 Exam 2 Part 1

  1. 16th Amendment
    federal income tax for all incomes over 3K
  2. 17th Amendment
    Direct election of senators
  3. 18th amendment
    • Prohibition of alcoholic beverages
    • One year after ratification, banned the manufacture, sale or transportation of intoxicating liquors
  4. 19th amendment
    women’s suffrage

    -Alice Paul forms National Women’s Party

    -uses aggressive strategy to push forward legislation
  5. Recall
    ability of voters to remove elected officials (no illegal activities)
  6. Initiative
    voter proposed legislation
  7. Referendum
    voter consideration of existing legislation
  8. Upton Sinclair
    investigative reporter (muckrakers)

    -writes The Jungle (investigates meatpacking industry)

    -leads to the formation of the FDA
  9. Alice Paul
    • Pushing women suffer age leads
    • National Women’s Party
    • 19th amendment passed/ratified (help)
    • Uses aggressive tactics to pass legislation (the right to women vote for women) (protect/hungers strikers)
  10. Muckrakers
    • Investigative and publishes reporters
    • Seeking areas needing reform
    • Focused on the new Urban-industrial society
  11. Keating Owen Act
    establishes child labor laws

    -minimum age depends on industry (domestic-14; manufacturing-16)

    -intended to protect children from unsafe working conditions/exploitation
  12. Adamson Act
    establishes maximum working hours (8 hr work day)

    -applies to RR industry

    -will later be expanded to other industries
  13. Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
    • industrial fire inside NYC
    • -deaths of large number of workers (women/children)

    -leads to workman’s comp and workplace safety regulations

    *implemented on the state level; later expanded to federal
  14. Square Deal
    campaign slogan of Teddy Roosevelt

    -equal access to the economic system for all Americans

    -will increase regulations (ie-trustbusting) to create access
  15. Bull Moose Party (3rd Party 1912 election)
    third party of T. Roosevelt

    -party created to run against Taft (R) and Wilson (D)

    -promotes the idea that Americans have obligation (nationalistic) to

    practice beneficial business policy

    -fails to gain traction among traditional Republican voters

    -Wilson wins election
  16. New Freedom
    • W. Wilson campaign slogan
    • Focuses on trust busting
    • Will allow increased business/investing
  17. NAACP
    (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)

    -civil rights organization

    -fighting for equality through legal avenues

    -white-dominated leadership (strategic move to make more acceptable to mainstream society)

    -landmark case: Brown v. Board of Education (ends separate but equal)
  18. Social Gospel
    • ideology that states man (regardless of religion) has obligation to care for fellow man
    • places the responsibility of social programs on private sphere
    • counters the “gospel of wealth”
  19. Dual Alliance
    Germany and Austria-Hungary

    -each country allowed to remain neutral in war unless Russia attacks
  20. Triple Entente
    • UK, France, Russia
    • each nation tied into alliance through England
    • UK/France alliance; UK/Russia
  21. Risk Theory
    • German strategy that hopes to bring UK/German alliance
    • attack UK at its strongest point (navy) and force alliance by weakening opposition
    • if fails, pushes UK away from German alliance and exhausts resources
    • *plan fails
  22. Franz Ferdinand
    • archduke of Austria-Hungary
    • is next king in line to rule
    • assassinated inside Serbia by Black Hand
    • Germany issues Blank Check
    • 1.- allows A-H to act unilaterally and harshly as long as action is taken quickly
    • 2.- will take advantage of European outrage
    • leads to the Serbian Ultimatum: places harsh punitive measures on Serbia
    • 1.- response demanded inside 24 hrs
    • 2.- delay in issuing document to draw Russia into engagement
    • 3.- leads Russia to mobilize troops; start of war
  23. Schlieffen Plan
    Germany’s plan for a two front war

    -Three divisions of army: limited force on east to maintain Russian border

    -weakened force sent to the south of France

    -strongest force sent to north of France

    *act quickly, ambush the French troops, bring rapid end to war

    *improperly implemented, leads to Trench Warfare

    -stalemated form of war

    -series of trenches stretching north to south

    -leads to high death rates, limited front movement

    -drains the resources of all countries involved
  24. Unrestricted Sub Warfare
    German plan to attack all ships without distinction

    -an attempt to keep American supplies out of Europe

    -negatively impacting the Dual Alliance (unbalanced level of trade)

    -opposed by international law

    -US displeased with impact on American shipping/trade

    *retracted by the Germans after the sinking of the Lusitania (British passenger

    ship sunk with Americans on board; carrying war goods in cargo holds)

    *policy returns with Zimmerman Telegram

    -unrestricted sub warfare resumed

    -promises land acquisitions for MX if southern US attack launched

    -hope to distract Americans inside NA and out of Europe

    *intercepted by British; pushes Wilson to war
  25. American Expeditionary Force
    US troops during WWI; led by J. Pershing

    -will only be sent to Europe after training
  26. Selective Service Act
    establishes the draft

    -will create a conscripted army during WWI(not volunteer)

    -initially excludes A-A; will be allowed to register with support of A. Phillip Randolph
  27. Somme Offensive
    last German offensive of WWI

    -unsuccessful due to reinforcements of American troops

    -war ends shortly afterward
  28. Treaty of Versailles
    ends WWI

    -War Guilt Clause (Germany completely responsible)

    -demilitarization of Germany

    -land ceded to other nations (Alsasce-Lorraine/Rhineland/Czech)

    -reparations must be paid to England and France (large amount)

    *conditions of treaty will push Germany towards expansion in next decade

    *never signed by US Congress
  29. Russian Revolution
    Lenin (Bolsheviks) overthrows Nicholas II (tzar)

    -implement communist ideology

    -will take Russia out of WWI (Treaty of Brest-Livotsk)

    *exit from war gives Dual Alliance advantage inside WWI
  30. Committee on Public Information
    propaganda agency monitoring all war-time


    -responsible for maintaining/developing public support of the war

    -voluntary censorship from all news outlets
  31. Hooverizing
    led by Herbert Hoover

    -rationing/nationalization programs

    -looks to conserve supplies/materials for war effort

    *successful implementation of policy allows for stronger overseas exports (war)
  32. League NAtions
    forerunner to United Nations

    -coalition of nations brought together to maintain world order (no war)

    -formed following WWI

    -Wilson’s brainchild; US not a participating member

    *Germany (due to defeat) and Russia (rise of communism) excluded from participation
  33. 14 Points
    Wilson’s democratic platform

    -supports the rights of all nations to self-govern and self-regulate (as long as democratic)

    *provides underpinnings for post-WWI discussion
  34. Great Migration
    massive movement of A-A men from south to north during WWI

    -hoping to escape agricultural trappings; new jobs in manufacturing

    -unwelcome inside northern regions; many return

    *shows similar racial attitudes between northern and southern regions
  35. Alfred Sloan
    president of GM

    -auto loans and yearly models

    -will sell autos as lifestyle; make accessible to all Americans
  36. Consumer economy
    spending more than income allows

    -consumption for show

    -lead to the rise of the 1920s economy (credit) and culture

    -contributes to Great Depression (overextension of credit)
  37. Scopes Monkey Trial
    battle between traditional and liberal ideologies

    -questions right of schools to teach evolution

    -anti-evolution case wins; indicates a shift in American opinion (not pleased)
  38. Xenophobia
    fear of immigrants

    • -dislike competition for jobs/housing, different religions, new political
    • Ideologies
  39. National Origins Act
    quota system placed on immigration

    -2% of any immigrant group (according to 1890 census) can immigrate yearly

    -Asian excluded

    *allows for the conservation of traditional cultures/populations; limits immigrant growth (competition)
  40. Marcus Garvey
    A-A separatist leader

    -forms UNIA; hopes to colonize AA population

    -targeted by the gov.; convicted of mail fraud; exile

    *demonstrates need to maintain traditional social order (labor force)
  41. Harlem Renaissance
    AA cultural movement

    -occurs inside NY

    -demonstrates the abilities of the AA mind (not just physical strength)
  42. Birth of a Nation
    pro-KKK (white supremacy) film

    -promotes the stereotypical depiction of AA

    -help lead to the rise of KKK (William Simmons)
  43. Teapot Dome Scandal
    led to the collapse of the Harding Administration

    -pushes Coolidge to promote more stringent regulations/oversight
  44. Al Smith
    Democratic presidential nominee in 1928

    -Catholic candidate (1st for a major party)

    -defeated by Hoover

    *demonstrates the inability of most American voters to accept difference inside leadership positions (Popish Plot)
  45. Hoovervilles
    shanty towns formed by America’s unemployed/homeless

    -named after Hoover to place blame for lack of public support/economic

  46. Bonus Army
    WWI vets march on DC to demand early payment of pensions

    -Hoover refuses to concede point; sends army (MacArthur) to disperse marchers

    -violence ensues; costs Hoover election (FDR wins)
  47. Reconstruction Finance Corporation
    Hoover’s attempt to minimize G. Depression

    -private credit pool funded by big business

    -receives limited response; unable to make dent in economic situation

    *underlying issue is not lack of credit but lack of buying power
  48. Black Tuesday
    day the stock market crashes in 1929

    -leads to the dissipation of great amounts of investments
  49. First 100 Days
    term used to describe initial policies of an administration

    -set tone for remainder of term

    -first seen with FDR (New Deal)
    jobs works programs

    -part of New Deal

    -TVA/CCC: conservation, male focused, white, young, residential

    -WPA: all-inclusive, integrated, non-residential, deficit funded
  51. Dust Bowl
    drying out of west/south (overproduction/overgrazing)

    -leads to the collapse of the farming industry

    -pushes great majority of farmers to west/east looking for jobs
  52. FDIC
    government backs all deposits (up to 5K)

    -encourages investors to put funds back in banks for reinvestment
  53. Huey Long
    “Share our Wealth” (from LA)

    -100% tax on incomes over 1million

    -guaranteed income of 5K

    -gov. sponsored pensions
  54. Francis Townshend
    mandatory retirement at age of 60

    -forces higher paid out; more entry level positions available

    -gov. sponsored pension

    **pushes the formation of the SSA
  55. Court Packing
    FDR’s plan to expand to size of Supreme Court

    -hopes to gain support for New Deal programs

    -states mandatory retirement for justices over 70; one new appointment for each noncompliant justice

    -expands court from 5 to 9 justices

    *will back New Deal and Civil Rights
  56. Stalin
    communist of leader Russia

    -5 Year Plan (gradual implementation of communism)

    -gains power through armed struggle

    -will become a weak ally of Nazi-Germany (non aggression pact)
  57. Mussolini
    leader of Italy

    -gains power through support of Black Shirts

    -Victor Emmanuel III turns over full authority without consent of Parliament

    -will become strong ally of Nazi Germany through Rome-Berlin Axis
  58. Locarno Accord
    Vatican recognizes Mussolini (complicity agrees to support)
  59. Concordat
    Vatican recognizes Nazi-Germany (promise compliance with all policies in exchange for church autonomy and funds for Catholic education)

    *Vatican is granting international legitimacy to two major Axis powers
  60. N-S Non-Aggression Pact
    loose alliance between Russia/Germany

    -will invade and split Poland

    -Germany will not attack Russia (and vice-versa)

    -leads to false sense of security for Russians
  61. Battle of Dunkirk
    massive evacuation of French/UK troops out of France

    -France has fallen to Germans

    -civilian evacuation of troops (high deaths; large munitions losses)

    *mistake by Hitler not to pursue/destroy remaining troops

    -hopes to gain compliance of UK
  62. Maginot Line
    French defense plan

    -string of forts running along French/German border

    -false security pushes France to follow appeasement

    -permanent position of armaments allows Germany to ambush line (go around line through Belgium)

    *leads to the quick collapse of France
  63. Appeasement
    policy followed by UK/France

    -grant all necessary concessions (to Germany) to avoid war

    -allows Germany to take: Austria, Rhineland, Alsasce-Lorraine, Czech.)

    *leads to the start of WWII
  64. Munich Agreement
    signed between UK/France/Germany

    -allows Germany to take western half of Czech.

    -Germany will take all of Czech.

    -appeasement allows the move to stand unchallenged (no Poland)
  65. Anschluss
    German invasion of Austria
  66. Weimar Republic
    German gov. after WWI

    -democratically elected gov.

    -executive: president (elected) chancellor (appointed)

    -legislative: Reichstag (elected with proportional representation)

    -guarantees civil liberties
  67. Article 48
    allows the president to suspend all constitutional rights and rule unilaterallyin case of emergency
  68. Enabling Act
    Reichstag dismisses itself and grants all powers to Hitler

    -allows him to take full authority of Germany

    -will remain in place until conclusion of WWII
  69. Lausanne Conference
    Hoover supports

    -suspends all reparation payments

    -cancels/discounts all American held debts

    - hopes to rescue European economy

    *fails to make significant impact
  70. Dawes/Young Plan
    American investments (private) inside of Germany

    -prop up German economy (rep. payments)

    -withdrawn during Great Depression
  71. Nuremberg Laws
    German laws passed by Hitler to restrict Jewish life

    -self-identification (star); boycott of businesses (Kristallnacht)

    -starts full-scale anti-Jewish program (ghettos; destruction of churches/businesses)
  72. National Socialist Party
    Party of Hitler

    -25 Points: Restore German pride, anti-Semitic, Lebensraum

    -learn from Beer Hall Putsch that rise to power must be legitimate
Card Set
History 2 Exam 2 Part 1
History 2 Exam 2 Part 1