BIOL 225, CH 7

  1. name the tissues and organs that compose the skeletal system
    bones, cartilages, ligaments
  2. what are the functions of the skeletal system?
    support, protection, movement, electrolyte balance, acid-base balance, and blood formation
  3. how does the skeleton balance electrolytes?
    the skeleton releases calcium phosphate ions into the tissue fluid and blood according to the body's physiological needs
  4. how does the skeleton balance acids and bases?
    bone tissue buffers the blood against excessive pH changes by absorbing or releasing alkaline salts such as calcium phosphate
  5. how does the skeleton aid in blood formation?
    red bone marrow is the major producer of blood cells, including cells of the immune system
  6. a connective tissue in which the matrix is hardened by the deposition of calcium phosphate and other minerals
    osseous tissue
  7. distinguish between bone as a tissue and as an organ:
    bone can denote an organ composed of all the tissues, or it can denote just the osseous tissue
  8. bones that serve as rigid levers that are acted upon by the skeletal muscles to produce body movements
    long bones
  9. bones that are nearly equal in length and width, they have limited motion and merely glide across one another, enabling ankles and wrists to bend in multiple directions
    short bones
  10. bones that enclose and protect soft organs and provide broad surfaces for muscle attachment
    flat bones
  11. an outer shell of dense white osseous tissue. this cylinder contains bone marrow
    compact bone
  12. a loosely organized form of osseous tissue that occupies the central space in the ends of bones
    spongy bone
  13. name the anatomical terms for the shaft, head, growth zone, and fibrous covering of a long bone
    diaphysis, epiphysis, epiphyseal plate, periosteum
  14. •stem cells developed from fibroblasts
    •produce osteoblasts & osteocytes.
    •In endosteum, periosteum , central canals.
    •Mitotically active; stress & fractures stimulate division.
    osteogenic cells
  15. •“Bone formers” synthesize organic matrix.
    •Non-mitotic, mitosis and differentiation of osteogenic cells is the only way they are generated
    •hormonal function: osteocalcin-stimulates and increases insulin
  16. •former osteoblasts trapped in matrix in lacunae
    •connected by canaliculi.
    •Communicate with neighboring cells via gap junctions. Maintain homeostasis, sense strain to stimulate remodeling
  17. •Large, bone-dissolving cells found on bone surface
    •Formed by fusion of 3 – 50 bone marrow stem cells
    •Related to WBCs (different cell lineage than other bone cells).
    •Ruffled border facing bone surface increases surface area, for bone resorption.
    •In resorption bays that they have eaten into the bone.
  18. what are the two kinds of bone marrow?
    red and yellow
  19. what does hemopoietic tissue mean and what type of bone marrow fits this description?
    tissue that produces blood cells; red bone marrow
  20. produces the flat bones of the skull and most of the clavicle. such bones develop within a fibrous sheet similar to the dermis of the skin, so they are sometimes called dermal bones
    intramembranous ossification
  21. a process in which a bone develops from a preexisting model composed of hyaline cartilage. it begins around the _ week of fetal development and continues into a person's __
    endochondral ossification; 6th; 20's
  22. a process similar to intramembranous ossification where bones continually grow throughout life in diameter and thickness
    appositional growth
  23. states that the architecture of a bone is determined by the mechanical stresses placed upon it, and the bone thereby adapts to withstand those stresses
    wolff's law of bone
  24. describe the stages of intramembranous ossification:
    • 1. condensation of mesenchyme into soft sheet permeated with blood capillaries
    • 2. deposition of osteoid by osteoblasts on mesenchymal surface; entrapment of first osteocytes; formation of periosteum
    • 3. honeycomb of bony trabeculae formed by continued mineral deposition; creation of spongy bone
    • 4. surface bone filled in by deposition, converting spongy bone to compact bone. persistence of spongy bone in the middle layer
  25. what are the five zones of metaphysis?
    • 1. zone of reserve cartilage
    • 2. zone of cell proliferation
    • 3. zone of cell hypertrophy
    • 4. zone of calcification
    • 5. zone of bone deposition
  26. a crystallization process in which calcuim phosphate, and other ions are taken from the blood plasma and deposited in bone tissue, mainly as crystals of hydroxyapatite
    mineral deposition
  27. abnormal calcification of tissues is called..
    ectopic ossification
  28. the process of dissolving bone
    mineral resorption
  29. the calcium concentration in the blood plasma is normally __ to __ mg/dL
    9.2 to 10.4
  30. a calcium concentration that causes excessive excitability of the nervous system and leads to muscle tremors, spasms, or tetany.
  31. _______ normally bind and neutralize negatively charged groups on the cell surface, contributing to the difference between the positively charged outer surface of the membrane and the negatively charged inner surface
    calcium ions
  32. a blood calcium excess in which excessive amounts of calcium bind to the cell surface, increasing the charge difference across the membrane and making sodium channels less responsive. thus, nerve and muscle cells are less excitable than normal.
  33. hypercalcemia causes:
    depression of the nervous system, emotional disturbances, muscle weakness, sluggish reflexes, and sometimes cardiac arrest
  34. hypocalcemia can result from:
    vitamin D deficiency, diarrhea, thyroid tumors, underactive parathyroid glands, pregnancy/lactation, **accidental removal of the parathyroid glands during thyroid surgery
  35. calcium homeostasis is regulated by these three hormones:
    calcitriol, calcitonin, and parathyroid hormone
  36. a hormone that is a form of vitamin D produced by the sequential action of the skin, liver and kidneys. it behaves as a hormone who's function is to raise the blood calcium concentration.
  37. calcitriol promotes _____, and is also necessary for _____. without it, calcium and phosphate levels in the blood are too low for normal deposition, resulting in a softness of the bones called ____ in children and ____ in adults
    bone resorption; bone deposition; rickets; osteomalacia
  38. a hormone secreted by C cells (clear cells) of the thyroid gland when blood calcium concentration rises too high. it lowers the concentration by two principal mechanisms:
    • calcitonin
    • osteoclast inhibition; osteoblast inhibition
  39. _____. within 15 min after calcitonin is secreted, it reduces osteoclast activity by as much as 70%, so osteoclasts liberate less calcium from the skeleton
    osteoclast inhibition
  40. ____. within an hour, calcitonin increases the number and activity of osteoblasts, which deposit calcium into the skeleton
    osteoblast stimulation
  41. a hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands to raise blood calcium levels to stimulate bone deposition, therefore increasing or decreasing bone mass
    parathyroid hormone
Card Set
BIOL 225, CH 7
Chapter 7, Bone Tissue