Chap. 8 Respiratory System

  1. Accessory muscles of
    • The following assist the
    • diaphragm and intercostals when ventilation demand increases: scalene,
    • sternocleidomastoid, pectoral and abdominal wall as known as being slightly
    • active during quiet breathing and more active during forceful breathing
  2. acinus
    • In the last weeks of fetal
    • development in uteral the region
    • beyond each terminal bronchiole forms this functional structure which is the
    • basic gas-exchanging unit of the lung
  3. alae
    • The two external flared
    • openings
  4. Alveolar-capillary membrane
    • Tissue that separates air
    • from blood in the lung; consists of alveolar epithelium, basement membrane, and
    • capillary endothelium, along with their associated structures
  5. Alveoli
    • Ducts that end in the lungs
    • in clusters of these
  6. Angle of Louis
    • Slight oblique angle where
    • the manubrium articulates with the body of the sternum
  7. Anterior nares
    Opening to the nose
  8. apices
    • Uppermost portions of the
    • lungs
  9. carina
    Bifurcation of the trachea into the right and left mainstream bronchi
  10. cilia
    Extension of the mucoidal lining of the respiratory tract
  11. Costal cartilage
    Fibrous tissues that connect the ribs to the sternum and to each other anteriorly
  12. Costrophrenic angle
    Acute angle where the costal pleura meets the diaphragm
  13. Cricoid cartilage
    Ring of cartilage that forms the lower border of the larynx
  14. diaphragm
    Large dome-shaped musclethat separates the thorax from the abdomen: the primary muscle of ventilation
  15. Ductus arteriosos
    • Vascular channel in the
    • fetus that joint the pulmonary artery directly to the descending aorta; it
  16. Epiglottis
    • Flat cartilage that extends
    • from the base, of the tongue backward and upward
  17. Ductus venosus
    • 2/3 of the fetus blood
    • flows through this to the bypass the liver’s circulation and flows into the
    • inferior vena cav
  18. Eustachian tubes
    • Bilateral tubes that
    • connect the nasopharynx to the middle ear and mastoid sinus
  19. External nares
    • The two flared openings of
    • the nose
  20. External oblique
    Abdominal muscle group thatfunctions as as accessory muscle of ventilation
  21. External respiration
    The exchange between thegas of the atmosphere and blood
  22. Fissures
    Narrow clefts or slits; thelines that divide or separate the lobes of the lung glottis
  23. Foramen ovale
    Opening in the septumbetween the right and the left atria in the fetal heart. This opening provides a bypass for bloodthat would otherwise flow to the fetal lungs. After birth, the foramen ovale functionally closes.
  24. Gladiolus
    The body of the sternum
  25. Glottis
    Variable opening betweenthe vocal cords hilum
  26. hypopharynx
    Lower portion of the upperairway between the oropharynx and larynx
  27. Intercostal nerves
    Formed before birth andcarry and are the primary components of the somatic(motor) nervous systemthat carry nervous signals from the brainstem to the respiratory muscles
  28. Internal oblique
    Abdominal muscle group thatfunctions as an accessaroy muscle of ventilation
  29. Internal respiration
    The exchange of gasesbetween blood and tissues
  30. Laryngopharynx Lobes
    The 3 parts of the pharynxis also called this Larynx Lies below the hypopharynxand is formed by a complex arrangement of nine cartilages and numerousmuscles and it functions to protect the respiratory tract during eating,drinking and phonation.
  31. lobes
    Major divisions of thelungs; the right lung has three lobes and the left lung has two
  32. lobes manubrium
    Upper triangular portion ofthe sternum Mediastinum Portion of the thoraciccavity lying in the middle of the thorax(between the two pleural cavities.) Itextends from the vertebral column to the sternum and contains the trachea,esophagus, heart and great vessels of the circulatory system
  33. Mucociliary escalator
    The stoking action ofmillions of cilia propels the surround mucus at a speed of about 2 cm perminute
  34. Nasopharynx
    Upper portion of the airwaybehind the nasal and oral cavities Palate Boney plate that separatesthe nasal cavity from the oral cavity
  35. Parietal pleura
    Thin membrane covering thesurface of the chest wall, mediastinum, and diaphragm that is continuous with the visceral pleuraaround the lung hilum
  36. pharynx
    The region where the nasaland oral cavities open into Phrenic nerves Paired nerves thatoriginate as branches of spinal nerves C3-5, pass down along the mediastinum,and innervate the diaphragm: carrynervous signals from the brainstem to the respiratory muscles
  37. Pores of Kohn
    Openings between theadjacent alveoli
  38. Primary lobule
    A single terminalbronchiole that supplies a cluster of respiratory bronchioles. Also referred to a the acinus
Card Set
Chap. 8 Respiratory System