What are 3 purposes of the individual assessment score?
- education, motivatio, evaluation
- effects of personal disease control efforts, progress of healing, and mntnce of health overtime can be monitored
- example is plaque free score
What are 4 main uses if the individual assessment score?
- provide individual assessment to help pt recognize an oral problem
- reveal the degree of effectiveness of present oral hygiene practices
- motivate person in preventive and professional care
- evaluate success of tx over a period of time by comparing index scores
a _________ is planned to determine the effect of an agent or procedure on the prevention, progression, or control of a disease
What are 2 purposes of clinical trials?
- conducted by comparing experimental and control groups
- examples of indices used are: Plaque Index (Pl I) of silness and loe; and pt hygiene performance (PHP) of podshadley and haley
What are 3 uses of clinical trials?
- determine baseline data before experimental factors are indicated
- measure effectiveness of specific agents for prevention, control, or tx of oral conditions
- measure effectiveness of mechanical devices for personal care
What is the pupose of epidemiologic surveys?
they provide info on the trends and patterns of oral health and disease in populations
What are 3 uses of epidemiologic surveys?
- determine prevalence and incidence of a particular condition occurring within a given population
- provide baseline data on indicators that show existing dental health in populations
- provide data to support recommendations for public health interventions to imporve health status of populations
What are 3 uses of community surveillance?
- assess the needs of a community
- provide info to help plan community-based health promotion/disease prevention programs
- compare effects or evaluate the results of community based programs
What are 4 different types of scoring methods?
- individual assessment score
- clinical trial
- epidemiologic survey
- community surveillance
expression of clinical observations in numeric values
index that measures the presence or absence of a condition
index that measures all the evidence of a condition, past, and present
What is an example of a simple index? a cummulative index?
- measures presence of biofilm w/out evaluating its effect on gingiva
- DMFT index for dental caries
type of index that measures conditions that will not change. (caries)
type of index that measures conditions that can be changed (biofilm)
Name 8 criteria for selecting a useful and effective index.
- simple to use
- minimal equipment use and expense
- minimal amt of time to complete
- no pt discomfort
- understandable criteria
- free from subjective interpretation
- validity and reliability
What is the purpose of the Plaque index score? (Pl I)
to assess the thickness of biofilm at the gingival area
Pl I criteria: no biofilm. What is the score?
Pl I criteria: a film of biofilm adhering to the free gingival margin and adjacent area of tooth. the biofilm may be recognized only after application of disclosing agent or by running the explorer across the tooth surface
What is the score?
Pl I criteria: mod accumulation of soft deposits w/in the gingival pocket that can be seen w/ the naked eye or on the tooth and gingival margin.
What is the score?
Pl I criteria: abundance of soft matter within the gingival pocket and/or on the tooth and gingival margin.
What is the score?
Describe Pl I scoring for area.
each area (D, F, M, or L) is assigned a score from 0-3
Describe Pl I scoring for a tooth.
scores for each area are totaled and divided by 4
Describe Pl I scoring for groups of teeth.
scores for individual teeth may be grouped and totaled and divided by the number of teeth.
Describe Pl I scoring for the individual.
add the scores for each tooth and divide by the number of teeth examined. the Pl I ranges from 0-3
What are the scores for each of the following in the Pl I index?
Describe the Pl I scoring for a group.
add the scores for each member of a group and divide by the number of individuals
What is the purpose of the plaque control record?
recored presence of biofilm on indivdidual tooth surfaes to permit pt to visualized progress while learning biofilm control
The following scoring method applies to which index?
total the number of teeth present, multiply by 4 to obtain the number of available surfaces. count the number of surfaces w/ biofilm.
multiply number of surfaces w/biofilm by 100 and divide by number of total available surfaces
plaque control record
To determine the location, number, and percentage of biofilm-free surfaces for individual motivation and instruction. Interdental bleeding can also be documented. Is the purpose of which index?
Which teeth are selected in the PLAQUE-FREE SCORE index? And which surfaces are recoreded for each tooth?
- all erupted teeth
- facial, lingual, mesial and distal surfaces
the following procedure is used for which index?
apply disclosing agent. examine each surface for evidence of biofilm. record in red surfaces showing biofilm. use small circles between tooth blocks to record bld on probe.
PLAQUE-FREE SCORE index
The following scoring procedure applies to which index?
total number of teeth
total number of surfaces w/ biofilm
locate the intersectino of top and side numbers on chart which will tell you the biofilm gree score (listed as a percentage)
How do you calculate the PLAQUE-FREE SCORE w/out a chart?
- multiply number of teeth by 4
- subract number of surfaces w/biofilm
- multiply that by 100
- divide that by number of available surfaces
What is the purpose of the PERIODONTAL SCREENING AND RECORDING index? (PSR)
to assess the state of periodontal health of an individual pt
The dentition is divided into sextants. each tooth is examined. Posterior sextants begin distal to the canines. Is the tooth selection for which index? (measuring gingival and perio health)
PERIODONTAL SCREENING AND RECORDING
The following is the procedure for which type of index? (measuring gingival and perio health)
use probe designed for world health organization survey: markings are at 3.5, 2.0, 3.0 and 3.0 mm (total 11.5); it has a .5 mm ball at tip; probe is color coded between 3.5 and 5.5 mm
use walking step
each sextant receives one code number corresponding to deepest position
PERIODONTAL SCREENING AND RECORDING
describe each of the 5 codes in the PERIODONTAL SCREENING AND RECORDING METHOD.
- 0: colored area of probe is visible in deepest prob of sextant; no calc defective margins, or bld
- 1: colored area of probe is visible; smooth surface, no calc, or defective margin; there is bld after probe
- 2: colored area of probe visible; rough surface felt; defective margins of restorations
- 3: colored area of probe partly visible; requirements for codes 1 and 2 may be visible
- 4: colored area of probe disappears; probe more than 5.5 mm
- code *: any notable feature such as furcation; mobility; mucogingival problem; marke recession
What is indicated with a code 3 and 4 in SCREENING AND RECORDING METHOD?
comprehensive perio examination
how are pts scored in the SCREENING AND RECORDING METHOD?
by the highes coded score of their PSR
What is indicated with an overall code 2 score in the SCREENING AND RECORDING METHOD?
calculus and overhanging restorations that must be removed. check all restorations for recurrent dental caries
To determine total root caries experience for individuals and groups and provide a direct, simple method for recording and making comparisons. Is the purpose for what index? (measure dental caries experience)
ROOT CARIES INDEX (RCI)
Which surfaces are selected in the ROOT CARIES INDEX?
mesial, distal, facial, lingual/palatal with gingival recession are counted for each tooth
What is the purpose for DEAN'S FLUOROSIS INDEX?
to measure the prevelance and severity of dental fluorosis
What teeth are selected in DEAN'S FLUOROSIS INDEX?
smooth surface enamel of all teeth
Describe the scoring system for DEAN'S FLUOROSIS INDEX for each of the following:
2: very mild
- 0: smooth, creamy whited enamel surface
- 1: slightl changes from normal translucency are noted
- 2: small, irregularly scattered opaque (paper white) areas over 25% of the labial surface
- 3: white opaque areas more extensive than category 2, but cover less than 50% of tooth
- 4: enamel surface shows significant wear and may feature brown stain
- 5: widespread, significant hypoplasia, pitting, staining, workn areas, brown stain and/or corroded appearance